Robert Peck (1968) psychologists recommended Eric Erickson’s theory of personality development but criticized it since he had proposed only two stages. According to him, he categorized adulthood into two phases that are middle and late adult personality development. In late adult development, he identified three stages which are ego versus work-role preoccupation, body transcendence versus preoccupation, and ego transcendence versus ego pre-occupation. The stages are discussed below.
In ego versus work-role preoccupation, he explained that before defining themselves regarding family life and preoccupation. The letter further states that one should focus on mentoring the younger generation rather than focusing on the loss of prestige or status. However, there is a loss of self-esteem for those who did not invest at a tender age, therefore resulting in death (peck, 321).
In the second stage, Peck suggests that several identifiable physical changes occur, the body’s organs weaken, that is, the body’s immune system deteriorates, and physical characteristics of aging occur. He further claims that this stage is for seniors to develop skills to curb the pains of a declining physical body. The latter also states that seniors should recognize social connections and cognitive skills that are in place and learn to accept things and enjoy the good days. Contrary to that, those who never emphasized compensating rewards of cognitive, emotional, and social adaptive skills lead to unsuccessful aging (peck, 321).
In the last stage, ego transcendence versus ego pre-occupation Peck explains the elderly can mediate over the losses experienced and their impending mortality. In addition to that, they should recognize what they have contributed to the World. The old should never be obsessed with dying. Instead, they should be happy to be connected to the next generation. Again, they should be encouraged to leave a legacy by sharing experiences. However, unsuccessful aging may kick in when the elderly become insecure destitute, and fail to reward the younger generation (peck, 321).
To sum up, the elderly focus on mentoring the younger generations, strategizing on how to be well connected to the society and be happy and share their experiences, therefore, avoiding stress, desperation, and other factors that may lead to their unsuccessful aging.