Academic Master


Renal Dysfunction: Short Answer Problems- Session 9

Acute Renal Failure (ARF) can be categorized into three stages. Please define and give an example of each stage.

Table of Contents


The stage of pre-renal is defined as the condition that occurs in almost 60-70 % of acute renal failure cases when the blood supply to the kidneys is compromised that causes severe burns, reduced blood pressure in kidneys as well as the entire body, excessive bleeding, severe dehydration, and may lead to liver failure and heart diseases.


The stage of intra-renal occurs defines the condition when kidneys are damaged due to the direct injury which causes clots in the blood vessels, inflammation in the structural unit of kidneys, blood vessel disorders, and may lead to an autoimmune disorder called lupus that causes the immune system to attack the healthy tissues of the body.


This stage occurs in 5-10 percent of all acute renal failure cases where urine flow is blocked or obstructed which causes severe disorders such as prostate disease, blood clots in the urinary tract, and certain cancers of the cervix, colon, and urinary bladder (Banasik, 2021).

One of the more common genital dysfunctions in men is related to the prostate gland.
a. Explain the pathophysiology that allows Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH) to impact renal function.

The pathophysiology of Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH) is the abnormal anatomy of prostate adenoma that causes harm to the renal functions and results in enlargement of the prostate due to hyperplasia- a condition where an organ is enlarged due to the initial stage of cancer. The process of benign prostatic hyperplasia occurs in the gland that causes swelling of the prostate blocking the urethra and causing renal function problems.

What is the primary treatment for BPH?

The primary treatment for the pathogenesis of BPH when the symptoms and signs become really bothersome includes medication, prevention, and surgery. Firstly, a patient with BPH is only recommended the preventions such as limiting beverages, caffeine, and decongestants to control the symptoms of an enlarged prostate. Secondly, medication such as 5-alpha reductase inhibitors is suggested to shrink the prostate, relax bladder muscles for easier urination, and prevent hormonal changes. Lastly, when the symptoms are complicated, an andrologist suggests procedures including laser therapy, prostate lift, TURP, and TUIP in which the outer part of the prostate is removed, and open prostatectomy where an enlarged prostate is cut by making an incision on the lower part of the patient’s abdomen (Banasik, 2021).

Discuss how the normal effects of aging compound the ability to pass urine in a man who has BPH.

In a man who has Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH) symptoms, prostate glands tend to enlarge with aging where urine is commensurate and the concentrating ability of a male is reduced. A man with BPH with an aging problem suffers from urinary retention that can possibly result in kidney damage in severe conditions.

When reviewing the analysis of urine, we find clues toward specific types of renal diseases. For each abnormal urinalysis finding below, name the disease and anticipated treatment needs.
a. Crystals

Crystals or Crystalluria in urine does not mean that a person has some renal disorder or inflammation. The crystals such as uric acid, bilirubin, cystine, ammonium biurate, calcium oxalate, hippuric acid, etc., in the urine are actually caused due to certain medications and dehydration (Banasik, 2021). Therefore, having crystals in the urine is not contagious but still needs treatment which includes consumption of more water, cutting back on consumption of food having salts and sugar, maintaining a healthy weight, and eating a moderate amount of protein.

White blood cell casts

The condition where white blood cell casts are found in the urine is called Hematuria. This condition indicates the sign of inflammation termed urinary tract infection and the possible cause is Pyelonephritis in the urine which includes symptoms of vomiting and severe pain. The treatment for the pathogenesis of Hematuria includes consumption of an adequate amount of water, intravenous antibiotics for severe infection, lithotripsy in case of kidney stones, and broad-spectrum antibiotics (Banasik, 2021).

Increased glucose

Glycosuria is the condition where a person is diagnosed with high levels of glucose in the urine. The condition indicates a problem in the kidneys, uncontrolled diabetes, or high sugar levels in the blood. The possible treatment includes reducing processed food, reducing carbohydrate consumption, quitting smoking, injecting insulin, and consuming plenty of water.

Increased level of red blood cells

The possible diagnosis of the increased level of red blood cells in the urine is due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) where urine is blocked due to the enlargement of the glands. Treatment for this renal disorder includes laser therapy, TUIP or TURP where the outer part of the prostate is removed, prostate lift, and open prostatectomy through the incision of the lower abdomen (Banasik, 2021).

Epithelial casts

In urinalysis, the presence of epithelial casts indicates yeast infection or urinary tract infection in a person. A person who is diagnosed with increased levels of epithelial casts in the urine should quit smoking and consumes cranberry juice to promote kidney health.

Inflammation can impact the female reproductive system, causing pain and loss of organ function.
a. Trace the pathophysiology of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID). How does that impact the normal function of the uterus?

The pathophysiology of PID is caused by pathogens named Neisseria Gonorohoeae and Chlamydia Trachomatis in the cervix of the female that often moves upward due to the resultant damage. The development of pelvic inflammatory disease is due to the ascension of pathogens or microorganisms from the cervix of the female to the ovaries, endometrium, upper genital tracts, and fallopian tubes causing abnormal bleeding, abdominal pain, and fever.

What are the primary signs and symptoms of inflammatory disease of the breast?

The primary signs and symptoms of the inflammatory disease of the breast include breast discoloration, skin dimpling, fever, enlarged lymph nodes, change in breast size and nipples, swelling, and development of lumps in the breasts that sometimes leads to breast cancer.

What are the primary signs and symptoms of breast cancer? How does breast cancer differ in presentation and treatment needs from the inflammatory disease of the breast?

The primary symptoms of breast cancer include the development of lumps in the breast or armpits that causes the breasts to change their colors and unusual discharge from the nipples. Other signs also include flaky skin, thickening of the part of the breast, pain in the nipple area, irritation, redness, and dimpling of the breast skin (Banasik, 2021). The only distinguishing factor that presents breast cancer differently from other inflammatory diseases of the breasts is the development of lumps that a female can detect with her fingertips usually feels different from the rest of the breast tissues.

Dysfunctions of both male and female reproductive systems can block the successful joining of viable sperm with a viable egg to form an embryo. Other dysfunctions can reduce the woman’s ability to maintain the pregnancy through to live birth.
a. Note one correctable cause of infertility for men, and related treatment options.

Hormone disorder is one of the causes of infertility in men that is caused particularly due to Gonadotrophin deficiency. However, the deficiency can be overcome with the relevant gonadal steroids implanted through surgery or given by mouth or injections.

b. Note one correctable cause of infertility for women and related treatment options.

PCOS is one of the leading causes that cause infertility for women where women’s ovaries produce more adrenaline than required which interferes with the development of ovarian follicles. This condition leads to a female having problems in the release of eggs during ovulation which results in forming cysts in the ovaries. The treatment options include the consumption of medicines such as Letrozole, Metformin, and Gonadotrophins for treating PCOS-related infertility in females (Banasik, 2021.


Banasik, J. L. (2021). Pathophysiology. (7th ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. US.



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