Q. What determines behavior from the biological perspective?
The determination of behavior from the biological perspective is described by Rene Descartes as the notion of dualism. According to him, both the mind and soul are spiritual beings existing distinctly from the automated processes of the human body. This concept of dualism separated the sciences and the non-physical realm. It has created difficulty for the people who study mind and behavior. It demands from them to overlook the mind wholly and perceive behavior to be only mechanical or including the mind in the study must not be taken as something scientific.
Q. What determines behavior from cognitive perspective?
William James was of the opinion that human behavior follows specific instincts or native reactions. These reactions give the starting point for all learning and education. For instance, humans possess innate ability to feel fear. He also believed that the brain does not function as a set of separate faculties rather it works as a single unit. Wilhelm Wundt was a structuralist and believed that three main areas of mental functioning impact the behavior; thoughts, images, and feelings. He also opinionated that the experimental approach is restricted, and also other techniques must be introduced if all aspects of the human behavior and psychology have to be examined.
Q. What determines behavior from behavioral perspective?
James Watson believed that the behaviorism is the study of apparent or noticeable behavior. He said that the only behavior that is of the actual value and importance for the study of humans or the animals is that which could only be seen and detected, verified and measured. He was against the notion of contemplation and individual elucidation and considered them to be very unscientific and unsuitable for the study of behavior. Classical or operant conditioning is what through which the behavior is learned. B.F Skinner also believed that the behavior is determined by its consequences; either punishments or the reinforcements.
Q. What determines behavior from whole-person perspective?
Our behaviors are determined by the sexual and aggressive impulses that rest in the shadowy complexities of the unconscious which is hidden from our normal awareness. This is the belief and perspective of Sigmund Freud. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow took the humanistic approach and said that the human behavior is determined by the environment and by the influence of the unconscious forces resting outside the awareness. Apart from the environmental factors, as suggested by the Ancient Greeks, evolution and genes also play a role in the determination of behavior. Cultural learning and family impacts the behavior of the individual.
Q. What determines behavior from the developmental perspective?
Jean Piaget devised the stages of development of an individual which can be used for the prediction of behaviors. The four stages are the sensorimotor stage which is up to 2 years, the pre-operational stage which is from 2-7 years of age, the concrete operational phase which is from age 7 till 11, and then formal operational stage which is the adulthood phase. Mary Ainsworth also studied the behavior of children in all the developmental phases. She came up with the attachment theory and observed the changes in attachment behaviors in children. She discovered 3 main styles of attachment behaviors: secure, insecure, and resistant.
Q. What determines behavior from sociocultural perspective?
Milgram studied the behavior of obedience in the individuals. He concluded his study by claiming that we all obey the orders of the authoritative figures even if it involves harming others. He explained that people possess two states of behavior when they are present in any social place: autonomous and agentic. Zimbardo opinionated that our lives are formed by our thinking of the time and that a sequence of enigmas impacts our personal and social behavior.
- Unawareness of the impact time has us and our psyche
- Attitudes towards time can be helpful
- Perspective regarding time is influenced by the personal experience
(n.d.). Retrieved March 29, 2018, from http://www.apa.org/action/science/developmental/index.aspx
Kazdin, A. (2014, January 19). Punishment Doesn’t Teach Behavior. Retrieved March 29, 2018, from http://bigthink.com/in-their-own-words/punishment-doesnt-teach-behavior
Philip G. Zimbardo. (n.d.). Retrieved March 29, 2018, from https://zimbardo.socialpsychology.org/
PsycNET. (n.d.). Retrieved March 29, 2018, from http://psycnet.apa.org/record/1964-03472-001