A wide range of different practices covers by an expression “organ trade”. Majority of the people associated with it postulates that it is a situation in whichone individual who needs a kidney purchase it from another who needs money in return (Ambagtsheer& Weimar, 2016). But in reality, there are many other possibilities exists,for instance, a situation in which an individual pay now to others for using the rights over his/her body after death. This is possible only in those countries where earlier approval of the departed is obligatory for organ trade. Likewise, another situation in which relatives are get paid for the organs of their loved one for showing the consent over transplant rights (Singh, 2018).The study in hand is a cause and effect essay where kidney failure is one of the leading causes of people (causes) which promotes organ black markets (effects for example, what come about as a result).
In this modern age of advanced surgeries and medicines, approximately 4.2 million operations take place every year in the world for the purpose of saving human lives. There is no doubt in saying that the organ transplantation has the ability to save innumerable lives but the problem of unavailability of human organs still not meeting the present needs (Sivoplyasova et al., 2015). The chronic shortage of organ donors is creating a global problem for organ transplants medical community. In other words, the identified problem of this essay is originated from excess demand phenomenon of a market which means the supply of the organs for transplantation is lower than the demand of organs for transplantation. This excess demand occurrence causes the boosts of black markets for trade or sale of human organs. Leading think tanks of the medical industry tank arepresentlyinspecting this spikyproblem. In spite of fine-tuned and rigorous lawsthe majority of the authorities are unable to cope up with the problem of kidney trafficking or organ black markets.
The problem selected for this essay that needs to be solved is increasing global demands of kidney transplantationand its impacts on the illegal trading of human organs.Kidney failure has turned into more dominant diseasesduring the last couple of decades. Two out of ten in America and four out of ten in the world suffering from chronic kidney diseases whichincrease the kidney transplant demands.Kidney transplant is a surgical process in which the donor provides the kidney and placed into the recipient body (Sivoplyasova et al., 2015). According to the World Health Organization, kidney transplantation is leading in the list of transplants performed in 2018 by organ. These increasing demand trends causing the flood of candidates in waiting lists for organ transplantation.
The essay problem understudy (kidney failure and promotion of organs black markets) caused by a variety of factors resulting in damage of the nephrons which is recognized as the most importantoperational unit of this organ.In the majority of the cases, kidney failure is caused by plenty of other associated health issues that have done everlasting harm to human kidneys over time.Damaged kidneys may not work well as they should be which gradually leads to chronic kidney disease (Sivoplyasova et al., 2015).According to the medical literature, kidney failure can be divided into three different groups including acute, chronic and end-stage. End-Stage kidney failure is treated by kidney transplantation (Ambagtsheer& Weimar, 2016). The most common cause of end-stage renal diseases is diabetes. Another strand of literature states that high blood pressure is the most harmful cause in this regard. Some other prominent causes of this problem include urinary tract issues, genetic diseases such as polycystic kidney diseases, nephrotic syndrome and autoimmune diseases like IgA nephropathy and lupus.
Acute kidney injury faced by the individual due to suddenly stop working of kidneys. Some noticeable causes of this kidney failure are urinary tract problems, drug abuse,and illegal drug use, heart attack, and not enough blood flowing to the kidneys. However, this type of problem is not permanent and can be cured without a transplant.Furthermore, the growing demand for kidney transplants is due to progressive poor health and obesity which is due to poor eating habits(Sivoplyasova et al., 2015).These poor habits lead to the excess demand problem of kidney transplant around the world which develop illegal trading or black markets. So the above-mentioned health problems do not mean that an individual will have kidney failures someday. To keep discussion concise, the increase of the waiting list for kidney transplants depends on the type of kidney failure.
The population of the Patient who has been diagnosed with end-stage kidney failure is rapidly growing while on the other hand there is a massivedecline in the number of available kidney donors which is causing the upsurgein the average waiting time available for the kidney transplantation(Ambagtsheer& Weimar, 2016). There is a bulk of studies available which states that due to the shortage of donated organs available, a significant number of people die from the transplant waiting lists. People sell their organs illegally in developing countries like India, Bangladesh, Nigeria and Libya,etc. (Singh, 2018). There are different justifications available in the literature related to organ trade,for instance, exploitation by the salesperson or severe poverty. Another important effect of the growing lists of transplant waiting individuals is the increase of “transplant tourism”. It means those people who travel to make use of the donated kidneys. Human rights groups like Organs Watch opposed these practices and expose the international groups who trade illegal selling of human organs.
Due to poor infection control and lower medical and surgical standards,the black markets of illegal kidney trading increase the complications for transplant recipient (TH, 2009). Another severe effect of the illegal market is that the donor does not get the necessary care which required an individual after the operation (Yoon, 2018). The operation is very unsafe for both the recipient and donor and often cause HIV or hepatitis to the receiver.As well, the majority of the trading money taken by the middlemen which left nothing for the donors (Aeder et al., 2016).
As stated earlier, the fundamental objective of this cause and effect essay is to examine the reasons of kidney failure which escalate the individual waiting lists for transplantation and leads to the promotion of organs trading black markets. This essay briefly point out the causes of kidney failure first and then shed a light on the increasing waiting lists for transplantation. After keen evaluation of the medical literature and other reports,essay conclude that the causes of high rates of kidney failures are due to progressive poor health, diabetes,and obesity, while the effect of this problem is excess demand of kidney transplants. This excess demand for kidney transplants promotes the illegal trading of human organs around the world. The rest of this essay will propose some suitable actions with appropriate justifications to alleviate the understudied problem.
According to the latest report of the World Health Organization (WHO), on average ten percent needs for organ transplantation are presently met all over the world. Researchers suggest thatthe best approach to meet the excess demands and to alleviate the problemillegal trading and existing black markets is to establish legal marketplaces, as a minimum for the kidney transplantation because it is a rapidly growing disease which promotes illegal human organ trade (Sivoplyasova et al., 2015). But another group of scholars claims that legalization of human organs trade will basically reposition the problem of prevailing markets and enlarge the trade.WHO think tank also proposed some other solutions to increase the donor pool for example; 1) strict implementation of laws to prohibit organ trafficking and trading, 2) encouragement of philanthropicliving kidney donation, 3) development of better structure of deceased organ donation, and 4) prevention of transplantation by treating diseases on time that lead to kidney failures like hepatitis, diabetes,and obesity.
Every country must take the responsibility to achieve the above mentioned proposed goals or solutions and to meet their own necessities of kidney transplants by chasingself-sufficiency.Developed countries like the US and Australia have made remarkable progress during the last decade via the creation of Organ and Tissue Authority. On the other hand, developing countries still have a lot of work to do in order to alleviate the illegal trading of human organs.In addition, concentrating on the health of own citizens and depressing them from involving in the global market can also control illegal trading. Globally speaking, developed economies should help those countries suffering from extreme poverty because poverty is a major cause of human organ sale.
The problem addressed here is increasing trends of kidney failures (cause) around the world which increase the transplantation waiting lists and further encourage the illegal practices in the shape of organs black markets (effects). Plenty of solutions proposed by the researchers in order to cope up with this problem,for instance, those schemes should be regulated in the country which includes reimbursement for removing potential disincentives to organ donations and to make sure the donor’s safety. To facilitate these critical areas, international transplant and nephrology societies, World Health Organization and National Kidney Foundation type organizations can play a key role in facilitating initiatives. Furthermore, the health care code of conducts should clearly be defined for the professional health care facilities to the donors. The surgeons and physicians should take responsibility to make sure that obtained transplanted kidneys meeting the highest ethical standards.
Ambagtsheer, F., & Weimar, W. (2016). Organ trade: Knowledge, awareness, and nonlegislative responses. Transplantation, 100(1), 5-6.
Ryazantsev, S. V., Karabulatova, I. S., Mashin, R. V., Pismennaya, E. E., &Sivoplyasova, S. Y. (2015). Actual problems of human trafficking and illegal migration in the Russian federation. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(3 S1), 621.
Singh, B. (2018). Regulatory Framework for the Human Organ Trafficking in India. Indian Journal of Health & Medical Law, 1(1), 5-8.
Stewart, D. E., Kucheryavaya, A. Y., Klassen, D. K., Turgeon, N. A., Formica, R. N., &Aeder, M. I. (2016). Changes in deceased donor kidney transplantation one year after KAS implementation. American Journal of Transplantation, 16(6), 1834-1847.
TH, J. (2009). Organ trafficking: global solutions for a global problem. – PubMed – NCBI . Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 26 July 2019, fromhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19880230
Yoon, S. (2018). Black market trade of human organs in China and its implications for global governance. In Illicit Industries and China’s Shadow Economy (pp. 46-64). Routledge.