The Hawaiian boy and the Canadian girl intend to get in the Miss Columbia’s School House because they perceive that she will protect them. From their facial expressions and the cartoon’s caption, “Please Ma’am, may we come in?” it’s evident that they need to be part of the schoolhouse. They believe that Ms. Columbia is capable of guiding and helping them achieve their dreams and goals when they ally with them. Additionally, her size in the cartoon illustrates her ability to accommodate and protect whoever is the school.
In his document, Emilio Aguinaldo criticizes America for not recognizing the liberty of the Philippines, yet they willingly allied with them. Similarly, in the 1894 cartoon where the two individuals seek to be allowed in Miss Columbia’s School House without the knowledge of the chaos and unrest among the people within its walls. Hence, Aguinaldo’s document is an echo of the cartoon of how the Philippines allied with America since they believed that she could aid and protect them as they seek liberty from their oppressors (America). Contrary to their perception, they did not get the liberty they wanted yet their anticipated savior turned to be one of the oppressors by enacting and implementing unaccommodating policies.
The two documents, the 1894 cartoon and Aguinaldo’s critic bears a common message that America does not believe or intend to offer its conquered people the citizenship and liberties they seek when forming alliances with it. The documents perceive that America’s ways are premised on deceptions, and there is hardly the likelihood of it helping the conquered people under its governance achieve their intended objectives of being free and recognized citizens. Illustratively, the possibility of native people acquiring American citizenship and the liberties accompanying it is minimal, and one has to be more vigilant and strategic to achieve one’s ambitions.
Question 1; Progressive Era
The American progressive period of the 1890s to 1920s was objected in creating reforms to mitigate problems that were associated with immigration, industrialization, socialization, urbanization, and corruption among various sectors in the government. Different administrations of Presidents Theodore Roosevelt, William H. Taft, and Woodrow Wilson mobilized various reforms that saw massive political and economic freedoms expansion and restriction (The Progressive Era). First, women gained political mileage since it was during their period that legal laws were set to allow their participation in elections. Earlier, women were not recognized in most regions in the US, and their opinions were not recognized in a lot of matters including, the election of leaders, property ownership, make contracts or participate as jury members. The era encouraged a lot of feminists such as Alice Paul, Jane Addams and Ida B. Wells who were actively struggling for the recognition of women as equals to males. They saw it as an opportunity to make their voices heard in matters concerning suffrage in the United States. Through organizations such as the National American Women Suffrage Association (NAWSA), they succeeded in their quest and women were granted suffrage in the ratification of the 19th Amendment in 1920.
Second, the passing and ratification of the 17th Amendment in 1912 and 1913 respectively, changed the laws of electing senators (The Progressive Era). Unlike earlier before the passage when the senators were chosen by legislatures, the amendment saw reforms in the Article I, section 3 and granted the American citizens the mandate to elect senators of their choice. Additionally, the amendment was objected at mitigating and restricting political corruption where the chosen leaders could engage in graft activities without anyone taking them into account.
Third, the 18th Amendment of 1917 contributed to the restriction of economic freedom particularly to the producers, distributors and retailers of alcoholic beverages. The law prohibited production, transportation, and consumption of alcohol in the US and anyone going against it had to face the consequences. Hence, the economic freedom early enjoyed among the individuals and companies manufacturing and consuming alcoholic beverages was restricted to the extent that those caught associating with the concerned drinks were taken in as criminals.
Lastly, a lot of labor unions including both men and women were formed during the progressive era expanding the economic freedom of the American citizens. Unions such as American Federation of Labor achieved a lot of its objectives during the period in the early 20th century. It was able to ally with the Democratic Party to concentrate on its progressive mission within the cities that had industrial dominance. Additionally, the era offered them the best grounds to mobilize for restriction of powers of judges that interfered with labor disputes of which they eventually achieved in 1932 with the signing of the Norris-La Guardia Act (The Progressive Era). Furthermore, various laws such as antitrust restricted the economic freedoms of the large corporations that had the intention of engaging in unfair businesses and competition. Individuals such as Benjamin Parke DeWitt, who was one of the pro-labor progressives, argued that large corporations should be regulated to restrict them from abusing their powers for the sake of public interests and smaller companies.
Question 4; Women in the 1920s
Women greatly benefited politically, socially and economically in the 1920s decade. The era saw a lot of changes according to how the women were perceived in the society with the government passing various laws that protected the interests of females in different places including homes, workplaces, and schools. Also, they benefited from the many advances in technologies as platforms were availed that they could utilize to fight for their liberties and position in the society. In 1920, the 17th Amendment was passed that allowed women to participate in the election of leaders in the government. Initially, it was considered that their positions were limited to children, home and religious matters with others like businesses and politics were left for men but with the amendment, they had the liberty to be equal to males.
During the 1920s, more women attained degrees than in the earlier decades. Different reforms enabled them to attend schools that were initially dominated by men only. For instance, the University of North Carolina did not accommodate women, but it introduced housing for interested students in 1921 (Women). With the declaration by the state that any female eligible for a degree can graduate more women enrolled in colleges and universities. Hence, unlike earlier when the jobs considered suitable for women were only nursing and teaching, a new era began where they could apply for other positions in the workplace such as doctors and managers.
Moreover, women benefited in the 1920s in that they had the liberty of making their decisions regarding marital status and living standards unlike when their opinions were not accepted in matters concerning their general lives. While initially they were not allowed to file for divorces or consume products such as cigarettes, the progressive era saw the passage of various laws that gave them the liberty to live independently. For instance, the society gradually accepted their participation in the workplace and allowed them to earn wages despite their marital status without any interference by the government or community members.
“America’s History In The Making — Resource Archive”. Learner.Org, 2018, https://www.learner.org/courses/amerhistory/resource_archive/resource.php?unitChoice=16&ThemeNum=1&resourceType=2&resourceID=10144..
“The Progressive Era | Boundless US History”. Courses.Lumenlearning.Com, 2018, https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-ushistory/chapter/the-progressive-era/.
“Women In The 1920S | Ncpedia”. Ncpedia.Org, 2018, https://www.ncpedia.org/history/20th-Century/1920s-women.