Prevention as a term covers various kinds of support, facilities, services and other resources. Prevention refers to a collection of strategies which complements the treatment role and focuses on attaining a state of good psychological health, especially in the aspect of population mental health (WHO, 2002). There are various classes of preventions. According to the original public health framework, prevention is classified into three levels that is primary, secondary and tertiary (Caplan, 1964, p.27). Primary prevention aims at using risk strategies in preventing the onset of particular disorders before the development of symptoms (Cowen, 1977, p.1). The primary prevention strategies focus on the either the vulnerable subgroups or the entire population. On the other hand, secondary prevention methods aim at identifying the symptoms of defects with an intention of reducing their sequelae and duration. Tertiary prevention strategies prevents long-term disabilities and rehabilitates individuals suffering from certain disorders with the aim of returning them to their productive health as soon as possible.
The primary prevention measures are universal in nature and thus available to all the people. They include interventions which provide high quality information, reduces the level of isolation and loneliness, provides safer neighborhoods activities that promote a health living. The secondary interventions include handyman services, fall prevention clinics, housing adaptions, telecare and other assistive technology services, and short term provisions of wheelchairs. The tertiary interventions are the interventions geared towards reducing the effects of disability or the deteriorations for patients with complex health problems. Reablement services, rehabilitation of severely impaired people, joint case managed for people with complex needs and community equipment services are some of the tertiary needs. The paper addresses the primary, secondary and tertiary prevention measures in caregiving.
Primary Prevention and Promoting Well-Being
The primary intervention is crucial in delaying the onset and has been found to prevent the onset of various chronic diseases. The measures tend to concentrate on either the vulnerable subgroup of the population or the whole population. The primary prevention measures are mostly universal that is they are available to all the people. Some of these include interventions that offer universal access to high-quality information, support safer neighborhoods, minimize isolation and loneliness, and the activities that promote healthy and active lifestyles. Furthermore, the interventions include activities that encourage early discussions in the groups and families concerning potential changes which may occur in the future. For instance, laying plans for potential care and support needs should any member of the family get a disability or become sick. The isolation and loneliness are reduced by the formation of friendships and social networks. The process has many advantages because it helps the aged and the caregivers to minimize the risks of suffering from various diseases and can easily recover in case they fall sick.
According to the Care Act of 2014, there are various principles that assist in promoting the well-being of the seniors who require care and support as well as the carers. Some of these principles include personal dignity, protection from neglect and all types of abuses, economic and social well-being, and engaging in work, recreation and education. Additionally, other components of well-being include physical, emotional and mental well-being, domestic, personal and family relationships, making contributions to the community, and control of daily life by an individual. It is vital to consider the principles mentioned above when thinking about the well-being of an individual, a subgroup, or the entire population. Promoting the well-being of a caregiver entails seeking active improvements in relation to the principles. Well-being is extremely broad and encompasses an extensive variety of explicit considerations which depends on the individual.
The secondary prevention measures target people with elevated risks of developing needs, in cases where the provision of facilities, services, and resources may assist in slowing down or reducing any further deteriorations or preventing the development of other needs. The secondary preventions are suitable regardless of whether the person is a recipient of social support or care and is appropriate to the aged people and their carers endowed with the responsibility of stopping a person’s life succumb into crisis. Secondary prevention measures focus on detecting the asymptomatic disease at its early stages.
Some of the secondary interventions include handyman services, fall prevention clinics, housing adaptions, telecare, and other assistive technology services, and short-term provisions of wheelchairs. Falls may lead to serious clinical complications such as head injuries and hip fractures. In most of instances, the people who are victims of falls face difficult moments in recovering and show deterioration in their overall health. According to research, more than 40% of hospitalized patients with hip fractures do not go back to their homes and are not capable of leading an independent lifestyle. However, the good news is that the fall clinics give recommendations to victims with a history of falls hence helping them manage the disorder.
Most of the families are scattered in rural areas away from major towns and cities. As a result of the diaspora, the aged can no longer count on their children or grandchildren to assist them in performing household chores. Therefore, seniors face a lot of challenges in accomplishing daily activities hence the need for handyman services. Handyman services help in reducing the caregiver burden. The establishment of new technology alternatives is important in fulfilling the needs of the seniors and at the same time improving their lifestyle qualities. In this aspect, eHealth is a term that has caught the attention of many individuals, organizations, institutions, and financial bodies. According to Meier et.al, it bridges the gap between the private sector, health informatics, and public health. In clinical environments, the application of ICT has a lot of benefits to aged people. According to a study conducted by Cash et.al, assistive technologies for residential homes, telecare, and low-level technologies can easily be accessed in the public market.
There are various risk factors that are accounted for in the attempts to prevent the development of dementia. Some of these factors cannot be modified and include age, genetic influence, and gender. Furthermore, various innate physical attributes like lack of early education and illiteracy, accidents, traumas, and environmental stress increase the risk of contracting dementia.
Tertiary preventions are measures that minimize the impacts of disability or deterioration for victims with established or sophisticated health conditions. Some of these complex conditions include dementia. Moreover, prevention includes the practices which support human beings in regaining skills and managing or reducing needs where possible. Some of the tertiary prevention measures include rehabilitating people with severe sight impairments, reablement services, the utilization of joint case management for persons with sophisticated needs, and community equipment services and adaptations. Furthermore, the prevention measures include the improvement of the life of the carers often achieved by giving them the freedom to live a life of their own alongside the caring role. For instance, through respite care, the formation of groups that support peers like dementia cafes, or even through the organizing of classes aimed at managing stress.
Reablement refers to high level of personal support offered to people who face difficulties in managing daily roles while they are at home. The services include personalized care such as showering and dressing services, preparing food, and other activities required for daily living. An integrated service involving support from both social and healthcare specialists is vital for persons with complex needs. Such individuals require services that will assist them in maintaining their well-being and independence for them to live fulfilling lives. Respite care gives the opportunity to the caregivers to rest by having other caregivers substitute for them in their roles while the principal caregivers are taking a breather from their daily responsibilities. The recipients of respite care are mostly the aged generation, although the care also applies to the caregivers of children and younger adults with physical and mental impairments. A dementia café is a place where caregivers and people with dementia can visit to gain more knowledge concerning dementia and its signs, which portrays itself in ways that are socially unacceptable.
The usage of terms in this research illustrates what kind of resources, services, and facilities need considerations, arrangements, and provisions as part of the prevention service. Besides, it also shows the recipients of the services and the period when they should be provided. The examples provided should not be limited to any specific approach to a set of circumstances. It is important to view prevention as an ongoing consideration and therefore it should not be taken as an intervention, not a single activity. Multiple prevention activities can be used for the greater benefit of an individual. For instance, an individual with sophisticated needs may reap the benefits of reablement, services from fall prevention clinics, and access to quality information addressing the issue of healthy lifestyle choices at the same or varied points in time. Similarly, a carer might enjoy the benefits of accessing peer support, info targeting new careers and universal information relating to any disorder which affects the person they are taking care of in the residential and nursing homes.
The primary prevention measures are essential in delaying the onset of health conditions. The interventions include that facilitate universal access to high-quality information, supporting safer neighborhoods, reduces the levels of loneliness and isolation and the activities that help in promotion of healthy and active lifestyles. Various principles help in promoting the well-being of caregivers and older adults. These principles include personal dignity, protection from neglect and all types of abuses, economic and social well-being, and participation in work, recreation, and education among others.
The secondary interventions include handyman services provision, fall prevention clinics, housing adaptions, telecare, other assistive technology services, and short-term provisions of wheelchairs. Finally, the tertiary interventions comprise of reablement services, rehabilitation of severely impaired people, joint case management for people with complex needs, and community equipment.