Identification of problem and constructing of Agenda.
There are some problems within the U.S., but few of them are enlisted in the policy making agenda. The questioning-group in power can bring this issue on policy agenda. For instance; a major political campaign-donor encountered a problem, can move the point more quickly and conveniently onto the policy agenda rather a small-group without considerable political support. Public spotlight in another case, can also address the issue and be brought to the policy agenda by the public outcry. Media too plays its role in triggering the problem, e.g., 9/11 incident in the United States brought national security, terrorism and relations with Iraq to the forefront of International and National policy agendas (Policy Formation & Policy Implementation. 2018). These matters above must turn out to be agenda items to further policy-cycle. Further discussion will cover the approach to the problem, stick with the agenda, challenges to be faced and how it would get legitimization?
Formulation of Policy: second-stage.
It consists of a body of policymakers discussing the matters and concerns, suggesting legal and right approaches to resolve problems. The policy chose to solve the issue based on two elements; 1). The policy should be a valid and legit way of resolving the issue most possible manner. 2). Policies should be of political feasible (Hajer & Wagenaar, 2003). Hence, policy formulation process consists of analysis.
A process of Policy Adoption: third-phase.
Relevant bodies of Government tend to adopt the formulated policies to put into effect. Influencing factors can affect the adoption of the plan; political influences can also be used to determine what procedures are to adopt. Favorable and unbiased media also provides a forum where debate for the adoption of the plan takes place, it enhances the likelihood of policy proposal acceptance.
Implementation of Policy: fourth-stage.
Policies that have been adopted are now put into effect. Implementation of the policy refers to the enactment of planned solutions. Policy successfully implemented comprise of three criteria; 1). Policy creator communicates with governing body within the bureaucracy that has the power to legislate it. 2). The policy must not be ambiguous, and it needs to be easily interpreted and communicated. 3). Resources used for implementing must integrate with current processes without causing any disruption or conflict.
There are various standards to evaluate the policies implemented. They can be assessed informally as stories and anecdotes according to uncritical analysis, focusing on feedbacks, etc. Empirical evidence to determine the strategies are provided in the formal and scientific research, but they are time-consuming.
Challenges to Assess Policies.
Some policies are difficult to assess; some plans have conceptual long term goals, i.e., quality of healthy air. It is difficult to determine whether it will be universally accepted. Some policies also do contain multiple objectives that may be incompatible, out of which, few of them are accomplished (The Policy-Making Process Boundless Political Science. 2018).
Hajer, M. A., & Wagenaar, H. (2003). Deliberative policy analysis: understanding governance in the network society. Cambridge University Press.
The Policy-Making Process Boundless Political Science. (2018). Retrieved 7 February 2018, from https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-politicalscience/chapter/the-policy-making-process/
The Public Policy Process: Problem Recognition, Policy Formation & Policy Implementation – Video & Lesson Transcript | Study.com. (2018). Study.com. Retrieved 9 February 2018, from https://study.com/academy/lesson/the-public-policy-process-problem-recognition-policy-formation-policy-implementation.html