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Peer and Cultural Influences on Adolescent Development

It is the universal datum that the human life span has entitled with a transformative phase termed adolescence. However, due to cultural differences, its significance may differ around the globe, but its importance cannot be neglected. Various indigenous cultures worldwide consider it a transitional phase into adulthood and maturity. However, in various ethnographic and cultural aspects, early-age marriages do not demarcate a significant identification of the line between adolescence and adulthood. Whereas certain lifespan development theories point out that several factors leave lasting impacts that nurture or develop this stage of human life. In fact, the later stages of human age owe their occurrence to these factors. In this context, psychosexual and cognitive theories advocate adolescence as the ‘end stages’ in human life concerning subconscious development but a detailed overview of these stages is not available. On the other hand, the psychosocial theory focuses on biological and social changes in human beings in alliance with moral conflicts as a result of numerous factors. Various macro as well as micro factors contribute significantly to the adolescent state of the human lifespan. Basically, humans are embedded under the impacts of all these factors that surround them on a particular verge of life. Macro factors may include healthcare aspects, educational perspectives, customary policies, and primarily cultural perceptions. Centrality, micro factors are enlisted as family interactions, surrounding happening, and environment that shape the teenage developmental loop of human life. In this context, this paper will elaborate influence of familial, peer, and cultural factors on human adolescent development with this stated summary.

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Concerning the adolescence stage of life, familial and cultural factors in alliance with peer influence have impeccable significance. It is pertinent that the family is the basic societal unit, and the child individual depends on the family for all basic needs and as a result, takes influences. The marital health of the parents is a fundamental factor that shapes the perception of adolescents. The personality of a teen is shaped by such influence, either a disturbed daily life in an abusive parental marriage or exceptional in the case of transparent and approachable parents (Erhardt & Zagorac, 2019). For every problem, children tend towards parents with secondary options as peers and siblings. Overall family sphere plays a key role in this transitional stage, especially the parents.

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Moreover, cultural factors are vital in understanding the core responsibilities of the individual in society with a specific identity adopted with the starting of teenage. It is contrasting that many societies and countries have declared eighteen years as the marriage age while responsibilities become a burden at lower ages. So teenagers is adorned with mountainous responsibilities of education, family responsibilities, building future foundations, adopting life choices, etc. Such dichotomous culture also bestows freedom in this age with differences of level from area to area. For example, in American society, the freedom graph is a high-level option for cherishing relationship perspectives with sexual health sureties. While in Asian societies, such a level of freedom is diminished by declaring sexual relations a taboo for youth. This leads to moral differences which are accepted by adulterant minds. This cultural dominance eventually shapes the moral aspects of teenagers. Several cultural aspects also contradict religious obligations that have a lasting impact on adolescent development (Heiphetz & Oishi, 2022).

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Similarly, peers are mandatory for adolescence transitions as children need to understand each other as they undergo a similar transformation of biological phases. Peer impacts and pressures experienced by children contribute to teenage learning in this stage with lifelong impressions. In addition, this paves an introductory model to learn about societal variances and adopt them along with sexual transitions (Kar et al., 2015). Hence, parents must identify, accept and accommodate these changes with open-mindedness. Children face various change phases the first time, so parents should guide them and keep in mind that massive changes at this stage are part and parcel of life.


Erhardt, J., & Zagorac, I. (2019). Neuroenhancement and vulnerability in adolescence. Jahr-European Journal of Bioethics10(1), 149-170.

Heiphetz, L., & Oishi, S. (2022). Viewing development through the lens of culture: Integrating developmental and cultural psychology to better understand cognition and behavior. Perspectives on Psychological Science17(1), 62-77.

Kar, S. K., Choudhury, A., & Singh, A. P. (2015). Understanding normal development of adolescent sexuality: A bumpy ride. Journal of human reproductive sciences8(2), 70.



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