Obesity is considered a disease and not just a risk related to human health. It has become one of the most prevalent problems related to human health, especially in Western Culture. Obesity can be considered as a huge drift on the system of health care as it comes with an increased risk of medical complications. Obesity can also increase the risk of premature deaths. Moreover, obesity comes with an association with a compromised life quality due to its effects on daily life activities. (Visscher et al., 2004). This paper will discuss the risk associated with obesity and its effects on the mechanisms of the body, i.e. digestive and respiratory systems specifically.
Obesity and its effect on Respiratory System
Several systemic problems are linked with obesity. It is a condition that can be the result of genetic as well as environmental influence. Estimations of the contributions in the susceptible obese families due to the genetic influences range from 25-40%. Now that obesity has become the most common metabolic illness worldwide, it is at the risk of becoming a global epidemic (Mafort et al., 2016).
Some of these complications can lead to severe damage to both the tissues and organs. As a person becomes obese, the accumulation of adipose tissues increases, these increased levels alongside a huge number of cytokine production can lead to complications in the normal regulatory mechanisms (Marseglia et al., 2014). There is an enormous amount of data available on the effects on respiratory systems due to obesity since it has been studied extensively. The fat accumulated in the body tissues can change the physiology of the respiratory tract and can lead to the impairment of the lungs. However, the patterns of the fat distribution are different and all of them has negative effects on the functioning of the respiratory system (Murphy & Hart, 2014).
Regulatory mechanisms for the maintenance of homeostasis in the respiratory system
The maintenance of homeostasis within the respiratory tract is done in two ways, by gas exchange and by the regulation of blood pH. The process of gas exchange is performed primarily by the lungs and elimination of carbon dioxide is done. With the elimination of carbon dioxide from the body, oxygen again gets in via the lungs and ATP is generated by the process of cellular respiration (Murphy & Hart, 2014). On the contrary, the normal pH of the human body is 7.4, which by nature is slightly alkaline. To maintain the levels of pH within the body, hydrogen ions and buffers are responsible mainly. Among the most important buffers inside the human body, one is the mixture of bicarbonate ions and carbon dioxide. Through this mixture, pH is regulated inside the human body in normal cases.
Obesity and its effects on Digestive System
Obesity can change both the mechanical and hormonal processes in the body. Both factors can affect later on the digestive system of an individual. The development of the esophageal diseases is linked with obesity alongside various other digestive disorders. These diseases are the results of the accumulation of the cytokines within the tissues, i.e. both pro-inflammatory and inflammatory. Obesity can induce gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barret’s esophagus, and esophageal cancer. It has been also considered a major risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer (Nam, 2017).
Regulatory mechanisms for the maintenance of homeostasis in the digestive system
In the digestive system, the maintenance of homeostasis is under the control of hormones. Whenever the stomach is empty and it is unable to maintain the acidic environment, a negative feedback mechanism takes place. In response to this, a hormone is released to cut down the activity of hydrochloric acid in the stomach.
Obese people can face imbalance in the homeostatic systems of the body because of the irregular systems. A new theory has been proposed as a Circle of Discontent, which states that a system of feedback links weight gain and its negative effects on the body (Nam, 2017). Certain surgeries for the improvement of physiologic changes can be done on obese people bringing in significant weight decrease and improving certain body functions as well. These surgeries include gastric banding, bypass, and sleeve gastrectomy.
The impacts of different bariatric surgeries on the digestive system
The main advantage or impact of bariatric surgeries is weight reduction. Sometimes, surgeries are performed to reduce the weight if it is not done by exercise (West, 2013). However, the ultimate goal is the achievement of normal body weight yet hunger is not affected at all. Certain complications might include physiological impacts such as vomiting, mood swings, surgery failure, hernia, and iron or vitamin deficiency. Overall, it is an effective method to reduce weight in patients with obesity.
Excessive weight and the imbalances in medical conditions
Overweight individuals can face several imbalances in the normal conditions and mechanisms. Obesity is associated with high blood pressure and cholesterol levels in the body. These complications can lead to certain major diseases such as stroke, respiratory complications, and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, the complication may lead to cause an imbalance in the insulin production of the body, thus causing diabetes, arthritis and gall bladder issues as well (West, 2013).
Certain diseases are linked with obesity and major of these comes with complications in the digestive and respiratory tracts. Through treatments, however, the complications can be treated. Obesity is a major health concern since the risk and complications are life-threatening. Moreover, the factors associated with obesity are not same and can vary from one person to another. Although environmental and genetic, both can play a vital role yet the problem is highly associated with a poorly managed lifestyle. However, through exercise, physical activity, and proper diet planning, obesity can be managed.
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Marseglia, L., Manti, S., D’Angelo, G., Nicotera, A., Parisi, E., Di Rosa, G., Gitto, E., & Arrigo, T. (2014). Oxidative Stress in Obesity: A Critical Component in Human Diseases. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 16(1), 378–400. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16010378
Murphy, P. B., & Hart, N. (2014). Outcomes for Obese Patients with Chronic Respiratory Failure. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 9(3), 349–356. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsmc.2014.05.003
Nam, S. Y. (2017). Obesity-Related Digestive Diseases and Their Pathophysiology. Gut and Liver, 11(3), 323–334. https://doi.org/10.5009/gnl15557
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West, J. (2013). What Is the Respiratory System’s Role in Homeostasis? Sciencing. https://sciencing.com/what-is-the-respiratory-systems-role-in-homeostasis-12730698.html