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Obesity and its harmful consequences

Kathleen Johnson is an old lady, as her years dictate. Her major work is in the library, where she returns books to the shelves. She is described as overweight. In a lifetime, weight can be an issue with the way one works in day-to-day activities, while other factors are constants. The heavier the work, the lesser the rate of becoming overweight. Kathleen’s work is very simple, just moving from one corner to another in a room. It explains why she is overweight. She is also suffering from type 2 diabetes. The two are signs of obesity. Due to depression related to her looks, her father’s load (who has a mental loss), and diabetes, she tries to drink a lot and smoke to help her relieve the stress.

Kathleen, as proven above, is obese. There are causes related to obesity and the changes that accompany a person when she suffers from obesity. First, what is obesity? It is the excessive fats in a person’s body that are considered harmful to a person’s life. Obesity is calculated using the (BMI) which is the body mass index. BMI is determined by taking the total mass of a person and dividing it by the square of his/her height. One can be said to be obese if he/she is over 30. There are certain major causes of obesity. Two of the major causes include excessive food consumption and lack of exercise (Flegal et al. 2015). The signs associated with an obese person include diabetes, overweight, pain in the back and the joints, depression, and fatigue (Weyer et al. 2014).

According to the above-named causes and signs, Kathleen can be proven to be obese. Her BMI is at 40. It proves that her weight is high; hence, she has a lot of unconsumed fats in her body. The causes of obesity are related to Kathleen’s behaviors. One, she tries to have a very good diet every day, which makes her fat, but what she forgets is that she should do good exercise to consume the excess energy in her body. As explained earlier, her work is simple; hence, there is less manpower. It is due to this that she is overweight. There is no proof that she does any other exercise except when she is at work. There are symptoms and signs related to her obesity. She suffers from depression.it is said that she takes a lot of drinks (beer, coffee, and whiskey) to release her stress. Every person, especially women, loves having a well-curved body that can be admired and look beautiful. With the overweight body, there are no curves, the body looks more of unexplained shape hence one can suffer from low self-esteem. She will see herself as not valuable in front of others, hence causing stress. The other cause of depression is her diabetes, which is also caused by obesity. She has the common type 2 diabetes, which does not make nor use insulin. Diabetes can really cause major problems in a person. These problems include heart problems, stroke, and damage to the kidneys and eyes. Some of those diseases can lead to death if the patient is not well taken care of (Özcan et al. 2014).

The pain that Kathleen has has a great impact on her life in relation to obesity. As described earlier, the pain is due to her father’s mental problems, overweight, and diabetes. It is pain that makes her smoke and take excessive drinks. She takes four bottles of beer, glasses of whiskey, and a packet of cigarettes. All these drinks and smoking have side effects on her body. Excessive drinks can lead to liver problems and poor mental judgments, among others, while smoking can lead to lung cancer. If she does not deal with the pain, there can be serious consequences aside from obesity. Poor judgments due to the excess drinking can make her careless of her life, her diet making her condition in fighting obesity even worse than it was supposed to be.

From the ward analysis, she experiences a low urine output per hour. The recommended output of urine is 800 to 2000 milliliters per day (Lustig et al. 2016). When divided per hour, the lowest should be above 33mls. Kathleen, after surgery, has a urine output of just 5mls. There are reasons behind this low output after surgery. The two reasons are due to blood loss, kidney diseases, and dehydration. During surgery, which took two hours, it is expected a lot of blood was lost while getting rid of the 15% of the total stomach. As explained earlier, diabetes can lead to kidney problems. If Kathleen had already suffered a kidney injury, then there is a very big probability that it can also be one of the causes of the low urine output.

The post-op vital signs have some relationship with Kathleen’s personal condition. Starting with the breathing rate, her rate is 28. The normal rate for such a lady, considering her age, is 12 to 20. The main reason for the higher breathing rate is the lung problems. She takes a packet of cigarettes a day. That’s a lot to consume in one body. These will automatically lead to lung cancer and lung problems (Malik, 2014). It is the reason leading to breathing problems.

Kathleen’s blood pressure is way too high. She has a 190/100 BP. The normal BP is 120/80 and 140/90. The reasons for the high BP are related to her previous way of living. She has diabetes, which leads to a lot of sugar concentration in the body, which is a possible cause of the high BP. If the problem of being overweight had been controlled by doing physical activities, that would have solved this problem.

The pulse beat is too high for a 45 years old lady. The normal pulse rate ranges from 60-100 (Cinti, 2018). The main reason behind this problem is the issue of heart disease. One of the causes of heart problems is diabetes which she had been diagnosed.

It is known that the body temperature in terms of degree Celsius is 37 (Kahn et al. 2014). She has a low temperature of 35.1. Low temperatures are as a result of the fat accumulation that the patient had before surgery. The excessive weight is the core reasons for all the problems hence if it had been solved there will be no problems.

Pain score chart shows the rate of pain in an individual (Saydah et al. 2014). The pain score is said to be 7/10. Any score above 4 is too high, which shows that Kathleen has been in a lot of pain. There are many reasons for this pain score. It could be because she was the only person who took care of her father, who was suffering from a mental problem. Taking care of such a person is never easy. That could have been the main cause of the pain she was going through. She is diagnosed with diabetes, which is not a good disease because of its wide range of problems. All these reasons combined together could really lead to a lot of pain to Kathleen.

One of the ways of reducing obesity is through sleeve gastrectomy surgery. The surgery involves removing 15% of the stomach to reduce the excessive fat (Ogden et al. 2014). The new stomach is structured in a way that limits the amount of food a person can take at a given time. The new structure is pipe-like or like a banana. When a person eats it reaches a point where he/she feels full according to the maximum capacity of the stomach. The low amount of food consumption will reduce the energy and fat in the body in the future, hence reducing obesity. This kind of surgery is always the best way to reduce obesity. Other surgeries can be very risky. The 15% of the total stomach carries a lot of weight, hence a much-recommended method.

There can be some ideas on how to control abnormal vital signs. The first step is to sit the patient upright and make sure they have a good flow of oxygen. Due to the low temperatures, one can use blankets or hot fluids. Some of the other measures include giving medicines (Ng et al. 2014).

There are ways in which one can nurses can take good care of the patients who have obesity. One of the best ways of dealing with this is through balanced nutrition. One of the reasons for the overweight is the imbalance in nutrition. Patients should reduce their carbohydrate intake levels and have a balanced diet with the help of the nurses. Guidance to the patients can be necessary, mostly to the low self-esteemed patients like Kathleen. The nurses have the mandate to make sure they appreciate their bodies and work harder to make their health conditions great. The guidance should also involve the areas of social isolation where such people are kept aside in society. The nurses should educate the patients on all the ways to reduce and prevent obesity in the future (Cobb et al. 2015).

Some members of the interdisciplinary health team can help improve the care of obese patients (Locke et al. 2015). The three members include physicians, social workers, and case managers. The physician here is a psychologist who can help the patient appreciate her nature and embrace it. Social workers also provide guidance to the patients and the families involved. Case managers are in a position to take care of obese patients and make sure their plans of care are followed strictly.

In conclusion, obesity is dangerous since it’s a disease that gives birth to other diseases which have bad implications. Diet and physical fitness are one of the best methods to prevent obesity. The obesity signs like depression introduce more problems to the patient nature. The interdisciplinary team is responsible for making sure obese patients are well served and taken care off.

References

Cinti, S. (2018). Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes and the Adipose Organ: A Pictorial Atlas from Research to Clinical Applications. Springer.

Cobb, L. K., Appel, L. J., Franco, M., Jones‐Smith, J. C., Nur, A., & Anderson, C. A. (2015). The relationship of the local food environment with obesity: a systematic review of methods, study quality, and results. Obesity23(7), 1331-1344.

Kahn, S. E., Hull, R. L., & Utzschneider, K. M. (2014). Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Nature444(7121), 840.

Locke, A. E., Kahali, B., Berndt, S. I., Justice, A. E., Pers, T. H., Day, F. R., … & Croteau-Chonka, D. C. (2015). Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology. Nature518(7538), 197.

Lustig, R. H., Mulligan, K., Noworolski, S. M., Tai, V. W., Wen, M. J., Erkin‐Cakmak, A., … & Schwarz, J. M. (2016). Isocaloric fructose restriction and metabolic improvement in children with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Obesity24(2), 453-460.

Malik, V. S., Popkin, B. M., Bray, G. A., Després, J. P., & Hu, F. B. (2014). Sugar-sweetened beverages, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease risk. Circulation121(11), 1356-1364.

Ng, M., Fleming, T., Robinson, M., Thomson, B., Graetz, N., Margono, C., … & Abraham, J. P. (2014). Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. The Lancet384(9945), 766-781.

Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Fryar, C. D., & Flegal, K. M. (2015). Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 2011-2014 (pp. 1-8). US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics.

Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Kit, B. K., & Flegal, K. M. (2014). Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. Jama311(8), 806-814.

Özcan, U., Cao, Q., Yilmaz, E., Lee, A. H., Iwakoshi, N. N., Özdelen, E., … & Hotamisligil, G. S. (2014). Endoplasmic reticulum stress links obesity, insulin action, and type 2 diabetes. Science306(5695), 457-461.

Saydah, S., Bullard, K. M., Cheng, Y., Ali, M. K., Gregg, E. W., Geiss, L., & Imperatore, G. (2014). Trends in cardiovascular disease risk factors by obesity level in adults in the United States, NHANES 1999‐2010. Obesity22(8), 1888-1895.

Weyer, C., Funahashi, T., Tanaka, S., Hotta, K., Matsuzawa, Y., Pratley, R. E., & Tataranni, P. A. (2014). Hypoadiponectinemia in obesity and type 2 diabetes: close association with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism86(5), 1930-1935.

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