The search process of the peered review journal papers is based on accessing multiple (digital) databases, such as Wiley online Library, Allied Health Literature, and PubMed, amongst others. The research papers are short-listed from nurse management and professional development journals with search tailored for literature published within the last ten years (2011-21), which narrows the scope of literature on the subject matter. The search terms are connected with Boolean operators (AND, OR) for achieving results on variables for precision. The search results were limited to English language publication with professional and personal strategies for NUM, which enhances nurse support within ICU settings.
Monekey (2013) research focusses on the impact of leadership behaviours on the nurse job satisfaction, within critical care setting. The job satisfaction of nurse directly impacts the patient safety, work performance and productivity, turnover and retention level, and quality of care, etc. The research focusses on positive feelings toward work settings and leadership because they impact overall job satisfaction of nurses, although interpersonal relationships play a critical role among nurses. For example, organizational empowerment is directly proportional to job satisfaction, especially when nurses’ inputs is accommodated at policy level. The available studies suggest that the leadership behaviour plays an instrumental role in positively or negatively affecting the work climate, which means direct impact on the financial health of organization. Amongst other things, development plans can be used to increase leadership effectiveness at organization, and that requires enhancing leadership practice. Healthcare organizations can play its critical role in increasing job satisfaction of the nurses through identification of potential activities within organization. It is the goal of the leadership to recognize, attract and retain the critical care nurses, which also impacts positively in achieving organizational goals and competitive advantage. The research findings of Monekey (2013) aims to establish a strong relationship between the job satisfaction of critical nurses through studying ‘managerial leadership.’
However, Vergara (2017) research focusses on implementation of ‘mentorship program’ aimed for decreasing retention level and job satisfaction within critical care settings. A 45-bed critical care department is the unit of analysis for a hospital-based mentorship program, which produced positive results in terms of yearly turnover rates, and increasing overall job satisfaction of the staff. The basis for the hospital-based mentorship program is to positive influence the two major issues facing health care organizations, which requires thought-full policy making at leadership level. Recent healthcare reform legislation have reshaped the operations of healthcare organizations, and establishing an atmosphere of work environment where nurse professionals work optimally for the wellbeing of patients, and their respective families. The current industry trends suggest that there is estimated shortage of nurses in the healthcare settings due to intensified needs of the retired ‘Baby Boomers,’ coupled with 30,000 U.S. dollars annual cost to organization due to one percent increase in turnover rate. The theoretical model of the research is based on review of the existing literature, and focusses on ‘change’ that can transform the conditions of critical care unit. For example, Everett Roger’s diffusion of innovation theory suggest that facilitation to adoption of change because it results in transformation, with the assistance of five qualitative, that is, relative advantage, compatibility, trialability, simplicity, and observability.
In the similar way, Tourangeau et al (2013) research aims to explore the phenomenon of nurse’s retention level within acute care settings, and the generation-specific disincentives, an incentives that either discourage or promote the respective retention level. The existing literature suggest that the strategies and preferences of nurse in the industry differ a great length across generational cohorts. The research attempts to bridge the research gape with evidence-based generation-specific nurse strategies through data of 9904 registered nurses working in the two states of Canada, that is, Ontario and Alberta. The data is collected through cross-sectional survey with nurse feedback on preferences for incentives and disincentives that discourages or encourages to retain job. The survey items of the research are the product of the focus group discussions (FGDs), which explored the determinants of nurse retention. The analysis of the research suggest that there exist eight out of ten incentives, and eight out of fifteen disincentives, for remain employed with significant differences across the nurse generations. Research findings suggest that the two incentives are most frequently mentioned by the respondents, that is, manageable nurse-patient ratios, coupled with reasonability of workload.
Wright et al (2017) research focusses on the role of inflexible work schedules in the life work-life of nursing profession through assessing nurse turnover and job satisfaction. The research findings of Wright et al (2017) confirms the already established relationship between job satisfaction and nurse retention, that is, preceding significantly predicting the latter. The available literature on the subject-matter suggest that the major contributor to job satisfaction are educational opportunities and autonomy of nurse practitioners within acute care hospital settings. The research project illustrated on the implementation of computer-based self-scheduling system for nurse practitioners which has the potential to impact the overall job satisfaction in affirmative manner. The research concludes with note for development educator staff, that is, the key role ‘self-scheduling’ may play in increasing autonomy, reducing hospital costs, improving turnover and providing professional development. The research is based on NR surveys that generated a sample of 1,317 and 1,492 for the year 2012 and 2015, respectively. The intervention is the self-scheduling program, which is provided parallel with the existing electronic health record software. The outcome of the research is assessment of the amount of initiative, independence and freedom required and permitted for the completion of daily activities in the life of nursing work.
Moneke, N., & Umeh, O. J. (2013). How leadership behaviors impact critical care nurse job satisfaction. Nursing management, 44(1), 53-55.
Tourangeau, A. E., Thomson, H., Cummings, G., & Cranley, L. A. (2013). Generation‐specific incentives and disincentives for nurses to remain employed in acute care hospitals. Journal of Nursing Management, 21(3), 473-482.
Vergara, J. Y. (2017). Implementation of a mentorship program to increase staff satisfaction and retention in critical care. Nurse Leader, 15(3), 207-212.
Wright, C., McCartt, P., Raines, D., & Oermann, M. H. (2017). Implementation and evaluation of self-scheduling in a hospital system. Journal for nurses in professional development, 33(1), 19-24.