The research design is the overall strategy that is chosen to make integration of different components coherently and logically thus ensuring that there is an effective address to the research problem. It constitutes blueprints for the collection measurement and also the analysis of the data (Anastas, 2008). The research design is effectively determined by the type of the research problem that the researcher is solving. The main function of the research design is to ensure that evidence obtained effectively addresses the research problem more logically and unambiguously. The research design has been categorized into two types. The first one is a quantitative design which includes correlation, casual comparative, experimental and quasi-experimental. The second one is the qualitative design which includes the case study and the historical, the narratives, the grounded theory and the phenomenology. Different research design can be combined to come up with effective results in the research.
Sample selection is choosing the subset of the individuals from the statistical population basing on the estimated characteristics of the population. The advantages relating to sample selection include low cost of data collection and also a fast measurement of the entire population. There are two types of samples. The first one is a probabilistic sample which is the true representative of the population that is being researched upon and a non-probabilistic sample which does not truly represent the sample being researched. For the probabilistic samples, it includes random samples where each of the population has an equal likelihood of being selected and stratified sample where the population is divided into characteristics before selection. On the other hand, non-probabilistic involves quota samples, purposive samples, and the convenience samples. The nonprobabilistic samples are limited to the generalization of the information since it doesn’t represent the true population.
Data collection methods
Research requires more accurate information relating to the problem being studied. The information and the data can come from a wide range of the sources. Therefore, there are a variety of the methods needed to gather primary data. Some of the techniques needed in the data collection include interview which is structured for the quantitative research design. It includes face to face interview, telephone interview, and computer-based personal interview. The second one is questionnaire and survey (Hall, 2008). The paper and pencil questionnaire can be used to send to a bigger group of the population. The Internet questionnaire is very cheap and faster than the paper questionnaire. The third is observations which allow the study of the dynamic situations. The fourth is the focus groups, and the other methods include ethnographies, case studies, and the oral history. Documents and the records are the other forms of collection of secondary data.
Plans for data analysis
For any data analysis process, it requires the creation of a proper plan. The plan for the data analysis is an illustration of the basic requirements for the research. The plan makes an illustration of the data structure, the declaration of the research objectives, description of the sources of the data and the information (Hanks, 2017). Then it’s important to identify the procedures that are to be used in carrying the research. This implies that the plan must also include the methods that will be used in the collection of the data and also the methods that will be used in the analysis of the data. Therefore, the research document becomes very vital in the research since it illustrates methods and the purposes of the research to the supervisors, experts, researchers and the grand writers while in the field of research.
Anastas, J. W. (2008). Research Design for Social Work and the Human Services. New York: Columbia University Press.
Hall, J. (2008). Cross-Sectional Survey Design. Encyclopedia of Survey Research Methods, 173-174.
Hanks, G. (2017, September 26). How to Write a Data Analysis Project Plan. Retrieved from Bizfluent: https://bizfluent.com/how-6744253-write-data-analysis-project-plan.html