#### Calculate an independent-samples t-test in StatCrunch comparing differences in a value in the dataset between leaders and non-leaders and report your findings in APA format. The values in the dataset include altruism, management, independence, and variety.

Instructions for Calculating independent-samples t-tests.

Calculate an independent-samples t-test in StatCrunch comparing differences in a personality trait in the dataset between leaders and non-leaders and report your findings in APA format. The personality traits in the dataset include extraversion, contentiousness, assertiveness, compassion, responsibility, responsibility, and anxiousness.

Calculate an independent-samples t-test in StatCrunch comparing differences in a skill in the dataset between leaders and non-leaders and report your findings in APA format. The skills in the dataset include innovative/creative, self-management, social management, and cooperation

Discuss your findings and suggestions for future directions.

What is one take-away you have from any of the data you reported? Did you find any of the findings surprising? Did any of your findings confirm your hypotheses?

The data compare characteristics of people who are leaders versus those who are not leaders, but we do not have data on whether the leaders are considered “good” leaders. How might we better determine whether a person is effective as a leader or not?

**Altruism **

μ_{1} : Mean of V Altruism where Leadership = “1”

μ_{2} : Mean of V Altruism where Leadership = “2”

μ_{1} – μ_{2} : Difference between two means

H_{0} : μ_{1} – μ_{2} = 0

H_{A} : μ_{1} – μ_{2} ≠ 0

(without pooled variances)

**Hypothesis test results:**

Difference |
Sample Diff. |
Std. Err. |
DF |
T-Stat |
P-value |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

μ_{1} – μ_{2} |
0.15306122 | 0.12571154 | 193.96623 | 1.217559 | 0.2249 |

An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare altruism for leaders and non-leaders. There was no significant difference in the scores for leaders and non-leaders; t (193) =1.21, p = 0.224

**Management**

μ_{1} : Mean of V Management where Leadership = “1”

μ_{2} : Mean of V Management where Leadership = “2”

μ_{1} – μ_{2} : Difference between two means

H_{0} : μ_{1} – μ_{2} = 0

H_{A} : μ_{1} – μ_{2} ≠ 0

(without pooled variances)

**Hypothesis test results:**

Difference |
Sample Diff. |
Std. Err. |
DF |
T-Stat |
P-value |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

μ_{1} – μ_{2} |
0.25816327 | 0.12968971 | 192.02554 | 1.9906226 | 0.0479 |

An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare management capacity for leaders and non-leaders. There was a significant difference in the scores for leaders and non-leaders; t (192) =1.99, p = 0.0479.

**Independence **

**Two sample T hypothesis test:**

μ_{1} : Mean of V Independence where Leadership = “1”

μ_{2} : Mean of V Independence where Leadership = “2”

μ_{1} – μ_{2} : Difference between two means

H_{0} : μ_{1} – μ_{2} = 0

H_{A} : μ_{1} – μ_{2} ≠ 0

(without pooled variances)

**Hypothesis test results:**

Difference |
Sample Diff. |
Std. Err. |
DF |
T-Stat |
P-value |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

μ_{1} – μ_{2} |
0.31183673 | 0.11472074 | 191.13131 | 2.7182247 | 0.0072 |

An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare independence for leaders and non-leaders. There was a significant difference in the scores for leaders and non-leaders; t (191) =2.72, p = 0.007.

**Variety**

μ1 : Mean of V Variety where Leadership = “1”

μ2 : Mean of V Variety where Leadership = “1”

μ1 – μ2 : Difference between two means

H0 : μ1 – μ2 = 0

HA : μ1 – μ2 ≠ 0

(without pooled variances)

**Hypothesis test results:**

Difference Sample Diff. Std. Err. DF T-Stat P-value

μ1 – μ2 0 0.13207911 194 0 1

An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare variety for leaders and non-leaders. There was no significant difference in the scores for leaders and nonreaders; t (194) =0, p = 1

**Personality **

**Extraversion**

μ_{1} : Mean of P Extraversion where Leadership = “1”

μ_{2} : Mean of P Extraversion where Leadership = “2”

μ_{1} – μ_{2} : Difference between two means

H_{0} : μ_{1} – μ_{2} = 0

H_{A} : μ_{1} – μ_{2} ≠ 0

(without pooled variances)

**Hypothesis test results:**

Difference |
Sample Diff. |
Std. Err. |
DF |
T-Stat |
P-value |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

μ_{1} – μ_{2} |
0.17183673 | 0.10719325 | 191.66377 | 1.6030555 | 0.1106 |

An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare extraversion for leaders and non-leaders. There was no significant difference in the scores for leaders and non-leaders; t (191) =1.66, p = 011.

**Contientiousness**

μ_{1} : Mean of P Contientiousness where Leadership = “2”

μ_{2} : Mean of P Contientiousness where Leadership = “2”

μ_{1} – μ_{2} : Difference between two means

H_{0} : μ_{1} – μ_{2} = 0

H_{A} : μ_{1} – μ_{2} ≠ 0

(without pooled variances)

**Hypothesis test results:**

Difference |
Sample Diff. |
Std. Err. |
DF |
T-Stat |
P-value |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

μ_{1} – μ_{2} |
0 | 0.098645098 | 194 | 0 | 1 |

An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare contentiousness for leaders and non-leaders. There was no significant difference in the scores for leaders and non-leaders; t (194) =0, p = 1.

Assertiveness

μ_{1} : Mean of P Assertiveness where Leadership = “1”

μ_{2} : Mean of P Assertiveness where Leadership = “2”

μ_{1} – μ_{2} : Difference between two means

H_{0} : μ_{1} – μ_{2} = 0

H_{A} : μ_{1} – μ_{2} ≠ 0

(without pooled variances)

**Hypothesis test results:**

Difference |
Sample Diff. |
Std. Err. |
DF |
T-Stat |
P-value |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

μ_{1} – μ_{2} |
0.31122449 | 0.12680827 | 193.02212 | 2.4542917 | 0.015 |

An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare contentiousness for leaders and non-leaders. There was a significant difference in the scores for leaders and non-leaders; t (193) =2.454, p = 0.015.

**Compassion **

μ_{1} : Mean of P Compassion where Leadership = “1”

μ_{2} : Mean of P Compassion where Leadership = “2”

μ_{1} – μ_{2} : Difference between two means

H_{0} : μ_{1} – μ_{2} = 0

H_{A} : μ_{1} – μ_{2} ≠ 0

(without pooled variances)

**Hypothesis test results:**

Difference |
Sample Diff. |
Std. Err. |
DF |
T-Stat |
P-value |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

μ_{1} – μ_{2} |
-0.071428571 | 0.11721308 | 193.82462 | -0.60939079 | 0.543 |

An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare compassion for leaders and non-leaders. There was a significant difference in the scores for leaders and non-leaders; t (193) =0.609, p = 0.543.

**Responsibility**

μ_{1} : Mean of P Responsibility where Leadership = “1”

μ_{2} : Mean of P Responsibility where Leadership = “2”

μ_{1} – μ_{2} : Difference between two means

H_{0} : μ_{1} – μ_{2} = 0

H_{A} : μ_{1} – μ_{2} ≠ 0

(without pooled variances)

**Hypothesis test results:**

Difference |
Sample Diff. |
Std. Err. |
DF |
T-Stat |
P-value |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

μ_{1} – μ_{2} |
0.040816327 | 0.1002151 | 193.90961 | 0.40728719 | 0.6842 |

An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare responsibility for leaders and non-leaders. There was a significant difference in the scores for leaders and non-leaders; t (193) =0.407, p = 0.684.

**Anxious **

μ_{1} : Mean of P Anxious where Leadership = “1”

μ_{2} : Mean of P Anxious where Leadership = “2”

μ_{1} – μ_{2} : Difference between two means

H_{0} : μ_{1} – μ_{2} = 0

H_{A} : μ_{1} – μ_{2} ≠ 0

(without pooled variances)

**Hypothesis test results:**

Difference |
Sample Diff. |
Std. Err. |
DF |
T-Stat |
P-value |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

μ_{1} – μ_{2} |
-0.26020408 | 0.14698381 | 193.85641 | -1.7702908 | 0.0783 |

An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare anxious for leaders and non-leaders. There was a significant difference in the scores for leaders and non-leaders; t (193) =-1.77, p = 0.07.

**Difference in Skills**

Innovative/Creative

μ_{1} : Mean of S Innovative/Creative where Leadership = “1”

μ_{2} : Mean of S Innovative/Creative where Leadership = “2”

μ_{1} – μ_{2} : Difference between two means

H_{0} : μ_{1} – μ_{2} = 0

H_{A} : μ_{1} – μ_{2} ≠ 0

(without pooled variances)

**Hypothesis test results:**

Difference |
Sample Diff. |
Std. Err. |
DF |
T-Stat |
P-value |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

μ_{1} – μ_{2} |
0.23979592 | 0.10936096 | 193.89763 | 2.1927012 | 0.0295 |

An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare innovativeness/creativity for leaders and non-leaders. There was a significant difference in the scores for leaders and non-leaders; t (193) =2.193, p = 0.0395.

**Self-Management **

μ_{1} : Mean of S Self-Management where Leadership = “1”

μ_{2} : Mean of S Self-Management where Leadership = “1”

μ_{1} – μ_{2} : Difference between two means

H_{0} : μ_{1} – μ_{2} = 0

H_{A} : μ_{1} – μ_{2} ≠ 0

(without pooled variances)

**Hypothesis test results:**

Difference |
Sample Diff. |
Std. Err. |
DF |
T-Stat |
P-value |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

μ_{1} – μ_{2} |
0 | 0.090810505 | 194 | 0 | 1 |

An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare self-management for leaders and non-leaders. There was no significant difference in the scores for leaders and non-leaders; t (194) =0, p = 1

**Social Management**

μ_{1} : Mean of S Social Management where Leadership = “1”

μ_{2} : Mean of S Social Management where Leadership = “2”

μ_{1} – μ_{2} : Difference between two means

H_{0} : μ_{1} – μ_{2} = 0

H_{A} : μ_{1} – μ_{2} ≠ 0

(without pooled variances)

**Hypothesis test results:**

Difference |
Sample Diff. |
Std. Err. |
DF |
T-Stat |
P-value |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

μ_{1} – μ_{2} |
0.2894898 | 0.11321835 | 192.44483 | 2.5569159 | 0.0113 |

An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare social management for leaders and non-leaders. There was a significant difference in the scores for leaders and non-leaders; t (192) =2.556, p = 0.011.

**Corporation **

μ_{1} : Mean of S Cooporation where Leadership = “1”

μ_{2} : Mean of S Cooporation where Leadership = “2”

μ_{1} – μ_{2} : Difference between two means

H_{0} : μ_{1} – μ_{2} = 0

H_{A} : μ_{1} – μ_{2} ≠ 0

(without pooled variances)

**Hypothesis test results:**

Difference |
Sample Diff. |
Std. Err. |
DF |
T-Stat |
P-value |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

μ_{1} – μ_{2} |
0.24611395 | 0.11730017 | 191.98718 | 2.0981551 | 0.0372 |

An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare corporation for leaders and non-leaders. There was a significant difference in the scores for leaders and non-leaders; t (191) =2.098, p = 0.0372.

Based on the findings, altruism and variety had non-significant scores for leaders and non-leaders. On other hand, leaders and non-leaders scores for independence and management were significant different. On personality, the leaders and non-leaders scores were not significantly different in extraversion, contentiousness, compassion, responsibility and anxiousness. However, the score for leaders and non-leaders were significantly different in assertiveness. On the differences in a skill, the leaders and non-leaders scores were significantly different in innovativeness/creativity, social management and corporation categories and were not significantly different in self-management category. From these findings, some of the results confirmed while others discarded the hypothesis. Therefore, when hiring, the NGO must consider variables where the hypothesis was confirmed.