Keating is one of the long time essay writers who wrote about paintings in the European artworks and Technology. This paper seeks to review Keating’s essay on the artwork at Mughal court in India. The main objects in Keating’s essay are Jahangir entertains Abbas painting, Diana automation painting and the mechanical Galleon painting. Keating majorly did her essay based on the mentioned paintings at the Mughal court. It however, goes deeper in Diana automation given that it originated from the Northern Europe and how possibly this painting moved to Mughal court in India.
Diana automation painting is currently in Mughal India despite its production in North Europe. It is believed that the painting moved through space and time, translation and even appropriation in the form of a painted image in Mughal. According to Keating, the objects were moved by someone or people in authority. She says they were transported by a collection of driven gears, springs and wheels, which were assembled by a clockmaker. She believes the automata was crafted in Augsburg where they were recurrently commissioned German Emperors, dukes, bishops and electors. The automata were considered mobile and they were moved the European Emperors, merchants and missionaries across the world through time. It is during this time when German merchants funded many Portuguese expeditors to India to acquire trade permits without taxes being that India was rich in pepper germs and spices. This succeeded and German agents started moving to India to ship goods back to their country. In the process, they developed good rapport and sooner that immediately, they started trafficking paintings or rather printed materials and curiosities from their country to India. A time came when Cron made contacts with traders who had direct contact to the Mughal court. It is through them that the merchants delivered to Jahangir court presents, which mainly consisted of painting from Europe plus the automata.
Due to the movement of these objects across space and time, their acquired new identities, functions and values due to cross-cultural mobility. Metamorphosis, which is the transformation of thing from a dimensional outlook to another present the fore accent, changes over time. From this, Keating argues that mutability and consistency over time makes objects also to transform into a different thing all together from its parts. Automata were made to be presented as gifts in large feasts organized by the royal families. Diana automata was used mainly in drinking games where the head stag would be removed then filled with wine, it was then wound and set to the table where the person to who the object stopped was to drink all its content. The objects portrayed different meanings because of transcultural difference like the Diana automata in Mughal was used as an ascertaining maker of Khan.
Hybrid itself refers to the mixing of commodities to come up with one quality object at the end. Hybrid in application to the modern world is a present day art movement where artists work in limited science areas of science and the trending technology. The modern day artistic work has been specialized in that we have different categories from which one can pick from and work along. From the two readings, we realize there are three examples of hybrid arts in existence. The first hybrid art is juxtaposition hybrid art. The second example of hybrid art is the synthesis hybrid art and lastly transformation hybrid art. Juxtaposition hybrid art in basically involves combination of two clearly distinct art forms to come up with one having qualities of the two arts forms. Synthesis hybrid art on the hand can be described as fusion of two or more forms of arts to come up with one art form with qualities from all the art forms used. Transformation hybrid art on the other side involves the evolution of one art to another. It is where one art form changes from one state to another through time immemorial.
Hybrid art combines different art cultures in various ways to conceive better artistic strands. Combining artwork incorporates many objects put together to form a canvas surface hence making a hybrid amongst the sculpture and the painting. Forming hybrid art explores the boundaries of art and different cultures in everyday world. Hybrid arts results into various objects, which are more complex. Since the combination involves addition of one or more elements to form one, the resulting creature is more diverse and complex than others. Combination of these items therefore results into an art superior that the initial inputs.
In summary, Jessica Keating explores the history artwork in the Europe and parts of Asia. She majors on Mughal court in India where it is proven art works from different parts of the world are found. She explores the movement and the possible ways through which, arts from the Europe to Mughal court in India. She also talks of the changes in meaning of the arts due to cultural difference between races. The Andean Hybrid Baroque also talks of hybridity of artwork and culture. The book talks of the different types of art alongside Jessica Keating and later on explores how culture combines.