In times of rapid technological development and enhanced automation, networking has also evolved to become more sophisticated and improve human experiences. One such idea is IoT, which works on the idea of developing an information system infrastructure with integrated smart and connected objects.
The IoT can be described as the networking of components, including physical devices, electronics, vehicles, appliances, sensors, etc. in such a way that it promotes these products and components to interconnect and share data (Xia et al. 2012). It must also be understood that each of the involved components has a unique physical identity. However, it is the embedded computer system that allows them to connect with each other and share operational data. The purpose of this sharing and exchanging of data between the components can be diverse.
In IoT, the term “things” make it extremely diverse and inclusive. The “things” may refer to electronic devices and appliances such as security cameras, kitchen appliances, heart monitoring chips, built-in sensors of vehicles, environmental monitoring sensors, etc. (Wortmann & Fluchter, 2015). Further analysis reveals that the ‘things’ include the combination of hardware, software and data based on integrated systems to provide services and facilities to human beings by reducing their involvement.
One of the core ideas of IoT is to allow remote access and control of these components or electrical appliances through an existing network infrastructure while promoting the idea of an integrated physical paradigm where electrical devices and appliances have integrated computer systems for ensuring enhanced performance, efficiency and effectiveness while reducing human intervention (Wortmann & Fluchter, 2015). When the idea of IoT is further extended, it becomes more sophisticated and enhanced, which can be described as cyber-physical systems or paradigms. This classification of IoT includes high-level systems, including smart grid systems, smart homes, smart cities, virtual power plants, etc.
Xia, F., Yang, L. T., Wang, L., & Vinel, A. (2012). Internet of things. International Journal of Communication Systems, 25(9), 1101.
Wortmann, F., & Flüchter, K. (2015). Internet of things. Business & Information Systems Engineering, 57(3), 221-224.