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International Cybersecurity Threat Matrix for China, Russia and Israel


Cyber Culture

(i.e., How does the country view cyber threats? Is this consistent with the general country culture?)

Cybersecurity threats Cyber Legal Viewpoint/Cyber Economic Perception Reply to cyberterrorism/recruiting
The country’s media and communications significantly influence the news stories that are written about China’s cyber threat landscape. Even though many of the centers of the accusations on disputes between China and the United States regarding cyber spying, it is unlikely that these actions will lead to armed conflict because almost all competent players engage in cyber intelligence. Most of them stress that China is maximizing its cyber influence to expand and eventually gain global dominance and that the Chinese government is to blame for many harmful cyber actions. China is currently the top threat actor for cyber espionage. For instance, China conducts nefarious influence operations and network and service espionage on telecom companies to harm states’ geopolitical standing, including the United States. The fact that China can damage US infrastructure shows that it can carry out cyberattacks that would damage critical US infrastructure, including rail systems. China has been brazenly stealing American smart assets and using them to amplify its economic might. Three Chinese national standards are included in the various cyber security protection laws and systems. China has been enacting. The obligations for cybersecurity protection that every company must meet under these standards vary depending on the type of organization. To safeguard against network data leakage, theft, and falsification and protect their networks from interference, harm, and unauthorized access(Austin,2018). The standards require the firm to establish a cloud infrastructure such as servers and visualized networks. These infrastructures are subject to testing and evaluation by the Chinese government. The national standards also require cloud service providers to store all processed customer data and use personal information within China. Due to China’s high vulnerability to terrorism from domestic and foreign sources, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA) prioritizes counterterrorism as one of its main tasks during peace. China and Iran are uniting to oppose American unilateralism and hegemony as a result and find a solution. They assert that the US is expanding its hegemony over cutting-edge technologies like artificial intelligence.


Cyber Culture

(i.e., How does the country view cyber threats? Is this consistent with the general country culture?)

Cybersecurity threats Cyber Legal Perception/Cyber Economic Standpoint Reply to cyberterrorism/recruiting
Russia’s budget for cybersecurity was estimated at $2.3 billion in 2014. The hackers’ main targets are Europeans and Americans. Russia regularly conducts cyberattacks against other nations because it is a nuclear superpower. As in the ongoing Ukraine conflict, Russian military action is accompanied by cyberattacks. For instance, Russia threatened the government after Finland invited the president of Ukraine, Volodymyr Zelensky, to address its parliament in April. A glimpse into how Russia employs cyberattacks in armed conflict and its hybrid war against the West when it wants to avoid sparking an armed retaliatory response can be found in the extensive cyberattacks it launched against Ukraine. On April 27, 2022, a report from Microsoft’s Digital Security Unit was released that listed and analyzed each known Russian cyberattack on Ukraine during the early stages of the conflict (Connell & Vogler,2016). As their cooperation on information security issues has increased, both governments have emphasized their claim to cyberspace sovereignty. The most recent interactions between the two countries indicate that the April forum can be expanded upon. Some sources claim that information exchange has been planned to improve Internet surveillance and censorship. The two have participated in cooperative events where Internet security has been a critical concern, even though the current situation may seem ominous. Many of these Russian initiatives resemble Chinese programs. Due to its involvement in Middle Eastern military operations and status as a superpower state, Russia has become a significant source of annoyance for terrorists.


Cyber Culture

(i.e., How does the country view cyber threats? Is this consistent with the general country culture?)

Cybersecurity threat Cyber Legal Viewpoint/Cyber Economic perception Reply to cyberterrorism/recruiting
Binyamin, the Israeli prime minister, praises the cyber industry. It is constantly a work in progress, and as a result, it is expanding exponentially. The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) physically attacked Hamas in retaliation for an alleged cyberattack. After alleging that Hamas cyber terrorists had used a building in Gaza to attack Israel’s cyberspace, the IDF carried out an airstrike on the target. It happened after several days of fierce conflict between the IDF and terrorist groups in the Gaza Strip (Tabansky,2015). According to the Israel computers law 5755-1995, unauthorized computer data access is illegal. It is not treated lightly by it. It makes serious attacks on the hackers in their operational areas.


Austin, G. (2018). Cybersecurity in China: The next wave. Springer International Publishing.

Connell, M., & Vogler, S. (2016). Russia’s approach to cyber warfare. CENTER FOR NAVAL ANALYSES ALEXANDRIA VA ALEXANDRIA United States.

Tabansky, L. (2015). Cybersecurity in Israel (Vol. 598). New York: Springer.



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