Academic Master


Immunizations and Vaccines

The growth and development of global vaccination programs have resulted in extraordinary trends in public health. The global vaccination program is headed by the United Nations (UN), and various agencies such as the UNICEF, WHO, and Vaccine Alliance are a part of it. The measures taken by these agencies have boosted the vaccination numbers among children with hundreds of millions of children being immunized thereby reducing deaths that result from tetanus, measles, pertussis, and other diseases by almost half. While increased efforts are engaged in scaling up the production of existing vaccines, the development of new vaccines is also underway with Gavi introducing two new vaccines for rotavirus infection and pneumococcal disease. Partnerships are formed for advancing the new vaccines. The World has experienced an exponential increase in vaccine development and immunization of children; however, numerous factors threaten future success. Political instability and war are the leading obstacles that have hindered vaccine programs especially in the Middle East and Central Asia. Moreover, there is an increased disposition towards the antivaccine movement which has cause parents to delay or block vaccination of their children. These obstacles are causing a relapse of the positive effects of vaccine production and development. The proposed solution of vaccine diplomacy and countering the propaganda of the antivaccine movement can help combat these challenges. The article presents interesting information about vaccine development and immunization. The incorporation of new technologies for designing vaccines for neglected tropical diseases such as hookworm infection, onchocerciasis, etc. is quite intriguing. However, the most interesting aspect of this article is the concept of vaccine diplomacy (Hotez, 2019). The expository essay aim to explore vaccine diplomacy and the new initiatives that can be taken in this regard to combat the challenges arising due to war, political instability, and the antivaccine movement.


Hotez, P. J. (2019). Immunizations and vaccines: a decade of successes and reversals, and a call for ‘vaccine diplomacy’. International Health, 11(5), 331-333. Retrieved from



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