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HPV Worksheet

Which type of cancer is associated with Epstein-Barr virus? Which country/world region has the highest incidence? What might be some reasons for this?

Table of Contents

Several diseases are correlated with the Epstein-Barr virus while the type of cancers in this regard may include gastric or stomach cancer, and nasopharyngeal cancer, in alliance with immunoblastic and Burkitt lymphoma. However, the highest incidents are reported in developing areas around the globe. The main regions include East Asia, Latin America, and poverty-facing areas of Europe. Meanwhile, the main reasons for the Epstein-Barr virus spread are the transmission of body fluids mainly saliva. In addition, it also spreads through blood transfusion, sexual contact, and organ transplantation, etc.

2. Which type of cancer is associated with Hepatitis B virus? Which country/world region has the highest incidence? What might be some reasons for this?

Hepatitis B primarily causes liver cancer and roughly eighty percent of cases have been reported regarding HCC (Hepatocellular Carcinoma). It is frequently reported in the regions of the World including China (West Pacific) and most African countries. The main reason for its spread is contact from an infected individual to a normal person. Various bodily fluids like semen and blood are core materials for this purpose. In addition, sharing of medical equipment like syringes, needles, and drug injections are the main causes. It also spreads through sexual contact and from the mother to newly born baby during the birth process.

3. Which type of cancer is the mainly associated HIV/AIDS? Why do HIV infected patients have a higher risk for this and other cancers?

The primary type of cancer which is correlated with HIV/AIDS is cervical cancer. Besides, two other types of HIV/AIDS associated with cancer may include Kaposi sarcoma and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. However, patients that are infected with HIV have a very high risk of cervical cancer and others as it deteriorates the immune response of infected ones. It abruptly develops precancerous tissues in the cervix area of the body.

4. Which type of cancer is mainly associated with h.pylori infection? Is h.pylori a virus or bacteria? Which country/world region has the highest incidence? What might be some reasons for this?

H. pylori infection is chiefly correlated with stomach or gastric cancer. It starts initially as ulcers in the digestive system. H. pylori are a type of bacteria. Meanwhile, the world regions or countries with the maximum incidence may include developing countries of Asia. In addition, Korea, Japan, China, and Africans residing in UAE have reported this infection. Furthermore, the main reasons may include direct contact from an infected person to a non-infected individual through saliva, vomit, or feces. In addition, it may spread through polluted water and contaminated food.

HVP, cervical cancer and HPV vaccines

1. Among cancers, how does cervical cancer incidence rank among women in the US?

All over the USA, Cervical cancer is a highly occurring cancer among women compared to other cancer infections. Overall, its rank is fourth regarding cancer occurrence with almost thirteen thousand new cases annually.

2. In the US, which race and which ethnic group have the highest incidence of cervical cancer?

The highest rate of cervical cancer in the USA has been reported in Hispanic women. Though they have the highest infection rate in the country, Black women have the highest mortality rates due to cervical cancer. It is also pertinent to mention that under forty-five years to seventeen years of age, females are reported to have this infection.

3. Among cancers, how does cervical cancer incidence rank worldwide? How do these rates differ from developed countries vs poorer countries?

Across the Globe, cervical cancer ranks fourth among all cancer types. The rate of cervical infection is much higher in poorer states compared to developed countries. In developing countries, the detection of cervical cancer through screening programs is inefficient and treatment of precancerous conditions is immensely lacking. In developed countries, timely detection and treatment lower the infection rate in alliance with mortality.

4. About what % of cervical cancer is attributable to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection (all strains)?

More than 95% of cervical cancer is due to HPV (human papillomavirus) infection and almost all the cases are attributed to (human papillomavirus) infection. However, about 90% of the infected patients would be able to recover from the infection over time.

5. Do all strains of the virus cause cancer? If not, which are the predominant strains? What % of cervical cancer appears to be caused by these predominant strains?

No, all the strains are not responsible for cancer. However, two predominate strains are considered as causative agents which are HPV 16 and HPV 18. These predominant strains are responsible for 70% of cervical cancer.

6. Explain what PAP smears are and why they have led to a decrease in cervical cancer deaths in developed countries.

A Pap smear is also termed as a Pap test which is the procedural test used to detect cervical cancer. The detection procedure includes the collection of cervix cells, cells from the end of the uterus and the vaginal part of the human body. This procedural testing has significantly decreased the mortality rates due to cervical cancers, especially in developing countries. Timely detection of infection at early stages provides immense opportunity to cure the disease with greater chances. Early detection leads to impactful treatment with higher chances of curing infection or treating precancerous cells.

9. Explain the difference between a prophylactic and a therapeutic vaccine.

Therapeutic Prophylactic vaccines are different from each other in the context of their administration. A vaccine administered to any individual to avoid some infection before disease as a precautionary measure is called a Prophylactic vaccine. While therapeutic vaccines are administered to those individuals who are suffering from some disease or already infected. Anyhow both of these aim to strong the immune system of the human body by introducing antigens.

10. What type (prophylactic or therapeutic) of vaccine are Gardasil and Cervarix, Gardisal-9? Briefly explain how they work (which strains do they protect against?)Which of these is currently FDA-approved in the US?

Gardasil and Cervarix, Gardisal-9 are types of prophylactic vaccines. These have been developed to prevent various types of cancers like genital cancer, including anal cancer, in alliance with head and neck cancer types. As far as their working phenomenon is concerned, they guard the body and its systems against any viral infection. They stimulate the human body to produce antibodies that encounter infection in the future. However, the Cervarix protects against infection with two strains type 16 and 18. Similarly, Gradasil-9 defends against 9 HPV types that includes 6, 11, 33, 45, and 58. etc. However, Gradasil-9 has been the latest approved vaccine since 2016.

11. In the US, the FDA has approved women of what ages to receive the vaccines? How about men? What is the purpose of vaccination at these ages?

FDA has accepted receiving a vaccine at the tender age of nine years for females while for male citizens, the age is eleven years. However, due to advancements in medical sciences, the vaccination process is executed at early ages to prevent children from multiple diseases and infections. In addition, it also helps in the complete elimination of infection in future life.

12. Describe preliminary evidence suggesting that Gardasil’s and Cervarix’s safety and effectiveness in preventing HPV-mediated development of cervical cancer (see data/articles referenced in fact sheets?

The vaccines especially, Gardasil’s and Cervarix help the immune system to encounter and prevent the viral infection caused by HPV-16 & HPV-18. These two types are mainly responsible for precancerous infection along with cervical cancer. However. Gardasil 9 helps the immune system to prevent four HPV types including HPV-16, HPV-11, HPV-6, and HPV-18. It is pertinent to mention that these types are responsible for about 90% of cervical cancer. Meanwhile, Gardasil’s and Cervarix vaccines prevent cervical cancer development very effectively.

13. What evidence suggests that the vaccines are effective? Are you convinced? Explain.

Vaccines are very efficient due to several shreds of evidence. For example, in the case of prophylactic vaccines like Gardasil, Cervarix, and Gardisal-9, timely vaccination may lead to reduce 90% of precancerous cells. Similarly, the Cervarix vaccine has encountered HPV 16 and HPV 18 to prevent cervical cancer. So, I am fully convinced that vaccines are effective and provide proficient results to prevent infections.

14. What evidence suggests that the vaccines are safe? Are you convinced? Explain.

Vaccines are safe and sound in concerning their usage against infection and disease. The foremost reason is the fact that before approval of any vaccine, it is tested vigorously on thousands of individuals around the globe. Secondly, it is constantly monitored to ensure safety even by reducing mild side effects. In addition, any type of allergic reaction is monitored after the vaccination process for at least 15 minutes for further execution. So, I am fully convinced that vaccines are safe.

1. What are some of the reasons that vaccination of the HPV vaccines are still relatively low? What can be done to increase this?

There are several explanations that HPV vaccines are low like the vaccines are recommended at late stages after infection. In addition, these cause some side effects including pain, redness, nausea, and swelling. The insufficient availability of vaccines and carelessness at the pre-infection stages contribute to low rates. However, sufficient availably, awareness campaigns, low costs, and effective healthcare policies may increase the HPV vaccination rates among the populace.

2. Overall, what is your honest opinion of the use of the vaccine? Do you think it is safe? Effective? Would or do you plan on having your children vaccinated? What is your reasoning? (Note: Do not think you need to be for the use of vaccine because you are in a science class. You do have the right to your opinions?

According to my viewpoint, vaccines are safe and effective in controlling infection and diseases. A recent example is COVID where the vaccine has saved billions of lives around the globe. However, as far as vaccination regarding my children is concerned, I will definitely go for that. Because it helps the immune system to fight against disease and infection even before making one sick at a mature age.

Discuss the following controversies surrounding the use of the vaccine:

14. Should the vaccine be mandatory? Why?

Yes, it should be compulsory all over the country. Because the infection does not limit to a single person, rather the infected individual leads to the spread of the infection at a large scale. By vaccination, the spread at the precautionary stage or disease stage can be prevented effectively. So, it should be compulsory according to FDA instructions and guidelines.

15 Should parents have the option to not have their daughter (ages 9-18) immunized? Why?

No, the parents should not have such an option as it is the matter of life and death adorned with severe infections. For example, in the case of genital diseases or cervical cancer, the infection may lead to death or severe complications. Moreover, infections like HIV may be prolonged to the next generation during the birth process. Hence, such permission may lead to shaking the health fabric of the entire society. So, for ensuring the safety of overall society, parents should not be given any such permission.

16. Do you think that vaccination will lead to an increase in sexual activity by young women? Explain your answer.

I do not agree that vaccinations can increase sexual inclination among young girls. Various medications are executed around the globe for the purpose of cures and preventive measures. But none of these have changed the habits of individuals i.e., to indulge in fatal acts. For example, if painkillers are there for human usage, does it mean injuring oneself on grounds that one has a cure supplement? So, such speculations look baseless.

17. Do you think that vaccination will lead to a decrease in PAP smears and other screening procedures for cervical cancer? Explain

According to my viewpoint, vaccinations will not decrease PAP smears or other screening procedures. Because vaccinated females also need regular screening as a preventive measure.



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