China is currently considered as a global economic superpower due to its fast-growing economy. Over the last few decades, the chines economy has grown significantly exerting its dominance in the global and attracting the attention of the world. China’s rise to power can be explained in different dimensions, but the country’s stable leadership throughout history takes credit. The Chinese involvement in the world war and subsequent industrial and Cultural Revolution set the foot for China’s rise to power. The industrial revolution provided a platform for China to reform its financial and economic sectors to be in line with the rapid growth. The country’s communist leadership put in place proper policies that promoted economic growth. Poverty reduction additionally became the focus of the leadership, which saw the need to reduce poverty levels as the economy expanded. Chine industrialization set the growth for the rise of China to power and this was supported by leadership and showed political goodwill towards achieving this dream. China has developed to be a dominant force in the world with its GDP currently ranked the highest in the world. Chinese economic superpower has given the country a say in the world politics, which has led to changes in the world. Chinese growth has influenced the world in various ways through the partnership that has seen China invest in other developing countries. China’s economic success has become a model to the world where countries are now changing to adopt the Chinese economic and political models to rise to economic dominance and growth.
Chinese Rise to Power
The rise of China to power is documented through its involvement in the cold war and World War II and the industrialization. The two provided the basis of growth for China that was destabilized after the World War II. China’s rise can be explained through industrialization and its involvement in World War II.
China’s involvement in World War II
The Chinese participation in the World War II shaped the present China that is now peaceful. Even though China’s involvement in the war is not given the limelight it deserves, the country’s participation set the pace for its rise to power. China became an ally to the U.S. and Britain and helped to fight Japan, which had proved to be a dominant force in the war. Japan was so intense that the U.S required the support of China in destabilizing Japan and ending the war. China lost over 30 million people in the war, which was reasonable based on its close location to Japan, which had proved to resist all the allies of China. The resistance of China worked to oppose the strategy of Japan was based on attacking the Pearl Harbor making it hard for U.K. and U.S. warships harboring in the coastline.
The end of the war left numerous lessons to China that became crucial for its rise to power. China was neglected and disregarded for its involvement where the western media put much limelight on the west involvement in defeating Japan. The many lives lost by Chinese during this war set the pace for peaceful rebirth of a country that had experienced much violence. Up to date, the Chinese generation enjoys relatively because of the sacrifices made by the generation that fought in the war. The effects of war additionally helped the country to establish a good relationship with its neighbor Japan. China has been able to enjoy peace throughout which has made it easy to engage in economic activities (Bertelsen 241).
The last five decades have seen China shift from an agrarian society that solely relied on agriculture to an industrial powerhouse. The industrial revolution set the foot for China to be a global economic leader. In 1949, Mao Zedong took power through the communist party after it was renamed the People’s Republic of China. It is through the leadership of Mao that China industrial revolution took place. Mao was so passionate about developing china through industrialization. Mao had a belief that economic advancement would be the way out of changing the country’s feudal past, which was considered backward. In his pursuit of success, Mao identified science and technology as the two pillars that would guide chia towards realizing economic change. The change of China to people republic market 30 years long of a socialist economy that was inspired by the ideology of social equity pioneered by Karl Marx.
Deng Xiaoping advanced the ides of Mao in making China industrial. Even though Deng’s approach was unique from that of Mao, the ideology was the same. During this period of 1978, the majority of China’s neighbors had advanced in industrialization and had seen the growth of urbanization. China remained an agrarian society as Deng moved to change this by making China industrial. Through his leadership, he promoted the growth of industries, which saw many Chinese workers quitting their jobs in the farm and moving to work in the small factories established during this period. These factories had been made in the countryside, which allowed the locals to initiate the change to industrialization by earning their livelihoods in the industry (Uno 2).
In a bid to be industrialized, Mao’s leadership redistributed land to peasants with the aim of providing a level ground for development. The Chinese peasants got the opportunity to own land and engage in economic activities. The leadership moved to make China a secure food country by reducing purchase from international markets. Once this was achieved, the administration urged the citizens to reduce crop production and develop furnaces that could be used to melt steel. China began its industrialization through steel production with the aim of outpacing Britain in the steel sector. Despite the move to control steel market, the steel production became a failure due to the low quality of steel produced by locals. The failure of the industries led to starvation, which resulted in too many deaths. The industries that had been established were later converted to produce fertilizer, machinery, steel and iron, power and cement plants (Uno 4).
The period after 1978 was quite challenging in pursuit of industrialization. Most of the people moved to the city, which led to urbanization. Mao was forced to move these people back to rural areas in fear that they could be influenced by capitalists to become revolutionary leaders. Over this period, China faced these challenges but advanced its industrialization agenda. Over the last three decades, China was able to establish several industries that focused on production mainly for export. As the country engaged in industrialization, it builds ports and infrastructure as well as the power plant to advance its control of the economy. China was able to establish a stable economy through the gains of industrialization.
China’s Financial and Political Advances
Financial advances are a significant increase in the economic resources that a country commands. It also includes the bargaining power of a nation and its credit worth. Political advances are the growth of a nations’ political power relative to the world. It is perceived as how strong the political system is compared to other countries. China has experienced rapid growth in its financial base and has acquired a place in the world politics. The International Monetary Fund has ranked China as number one economic superpower. The factors that have contributed to China’s advances include; leadership, international business orientation, macroeconomic management, population policy, renewable energy, anti-corruption campaigns, and poverty reduction.
China’s fortune is connected to the excellent administration, which saw it begin expanding. It started with a coalition between Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong, which experienced a peaceful transition allowing them to work on the economy and political system of China. Deng Xiao Ping came in and adopted market economy, and he modernized and reformed China. After his era, Zhu RongJi took over, continued with Deng’s work and ensured that China registered with the World Trade Organization. He introduced a theory encouraging the promotion of entrepreneurial and business sector into China’s single-party system. The leadership of China took advantage of the peaceful succession setting innovative economic policies, which were favored by globalization, foreign investment, export orientation and maintenance of sound fiscal and monetary policy. The good leadership, therefore, plays a critical role in the advances that China has made to the top of the world (Zhao 970).
International Business Orientation
In 1980, China changed its economic strategy from being self-sustaining to export orientation. It was due to a steady of the Gross Net Product. This strategy helped China to work with other markets around the world, and its incomes went up very fast. The decision to upon up its economy to the free world and leave the Soviet sphere is also a step that saw its growth. China was now open to the western world modifying the system of political economy to one-party system. This approach has enabled China to be both economically and politically successful and has benefited the whole world in commerce, international peace, and trade. The trade relationship with other nations saw President Barrack Obama initiate an exchange program where American students study in China strengthening the education and cultural relations between America and China (Zhu 12).
It was demonstrated in the great recession where Chinas exports dropped by around 15% leaving 23 million people unemployed. However, the economy bounced back, and 98% got jobs, which reduce the rate of unemployment by 4%. This situation was managed intelligently, and the economy experienced a growth instead of a decline. Such active management styles are contributors to China’s political and financial growth (Hirst 12).
High and rapid growth in population is a significant hindrance to growth in the economy. The population growth rate is mostly greater than the rate of economic growth. The difference means an uncontrolled population leads to a weak economy. China adopted a one-child policy to act as a population trap and control population. The fertility rate control has enabled the country to control its population thus the stable and robust economy. The strong economy earns China respect throughout the world making its political system influential and powerful.
China is one of the leading countries advocating for the use of renewable energy to prevent environmental degradation. There is a plan to have renewable power in China, which will ensure the environment is protected. Such strategies attract alliances from other countries enabling China to be stronger and more stable. It is the largest marine operator in the world and should be keen on environmental conservation (Lin, 109).
Corruption is the most prominent enemy of economic development and political independence. It is a universal problem, which is experienced in almost all countries. President Hu Jinping set strict rules and laws to deal with corrupt officials in China. Presidents after him have maintained the regulations and in 2012, 182000 state officials across all ranks faced punishment for corruption allegations. The anti-corruption drive in China is strong, transparent severe and admirable. The levels of corruption have since decreased giving space to developments and strengthening the economy of China. Countries with low corruption levels are politically admired and have a voice in the political structure of the world (Hirst 7).
Reduction of Poverty
China is ranked as the most successful nation in reduction of poverty by uplifting millions of poor people. It has done it through set distributional objectives and social indicators. Poverty reduction strengthens the economy and is an active strategy that China has been using to stabilize its economy. China has achieved the reduction by creating an enabling environment for foreign investors in the country. The investors are a source of employment thus improving the citizens’ living standards. China has been a strategic country in handling most its operations efficiently towards the growth of the economy. A wealthy economy gains a command in the world giving China a strong political base.
China’s Influence on the Rest of the World
The success of the economic growth of China has brought many changes to the world. China has now gained significant influence in the politics and economic decisions in the world. The percentage in which China controls the world economy gives it a say on what should be done to stabilize the world. China has become envy to other countries who are now coping the Chinese model of development. Other countries are now shifting to learning the Mandarin language and culture in a bid to gain from success lessons from China. The influence of China on the rest of the world can be described through the following points.
Mandarin has been incorporated into Education Curriculums
China initially learned towards the west trying to copy its economic models to success. However, the rise of China to global economic power has seen a shift in this fascination with the West gaining interest to learn and understand the Chinese culture. The interest has led to schools in the U.S. and Europe introducing mandarin classes specifically aimed at learning the culture of China. Chinese studies have been on the rise with many learners shifting to understanding the secret behind Chinese culture that has propelled the country to such limelight. The number of Mandarin speakers has grown because of such studies. The Chinese government has additionally established Confucius Institutes in different parts of the world with the aim of teaching Chinese. Chinese is now one of the languages used in United Nations summit, which indicates the kind of influence China has on the rest of the world (Kim 28).
Countries are Adopting Chinese Economic Models
China’s economic model is behind the success of the country regarding economic growth. China operates state capitalism where the state owns most of the enterprises. A large number of these state-owned organizations has ensured that the economy is contr0olled by the state where collective growth is spearheaded. Developing countries are now shifting to adopt this model leaving behind western capitalism, which promotes individual success. The recent economic crisis in developed countries has seen these countries contemplating adopting the Chinese state capitalism model as a means of improving governance in their countries (Jain 114).
China’s is Exerting its Dominance in Developing Countries
China is slowly taking over infrastructural development in Africa through investment. The next frontier of Chinese economic development is the significant development it is making in developing countries. China International Trust and Investment Corporation is a state-owned organization that is making a significant infrastructural investment in Africa. Most of the African countries are now collaborating with Chinese firms to build infrastructure through loans that are repaid at small interest. These firms have dominated African countries by offering loans and grants, which has persuaded their governments to work with China for mutual benefit. The western dominance in these countries is slowly fading with China taking over (Eisemann 47).
China’s Currency is slowly taking over the World
In a bid to control the world economy, China has made a significant step to make its currency convertible. The move to strengthen its currency and to allow it into the world market is threatening the U.S. dollar, which has continuously been used in international trade. Chinese is pushing its currency to be used as a reserve currency, which will have an impact in the pricing of goods and services. The impact would see China expand its dominance since it will be able to borrow credit at a cheaper rate (Eisemann 65).
China is actively involved in Cyber Espionage
China has not been left behind when it comes to technological innovation. The country boasts with two technology companies Huawei and ZTE Corp, which has positioned China as a leader in technology. Chinses firms have been accused of infiltrating communication systems of countries stealing information. Their progress has threaten cyber security, which has seen China has a threat to peace and development. The rapid rise of these firms has seen them control a significant market for technology. E involvement could be able to sabotage government operations (Nielsen 55).
China has opened its Borders
Previously, Chinese citizens were denied the freedom to leave China for other countries. The rise of China to power has necessitated the country to open its borders allowing its citizens to explore the world. China has become friendly to foreigners who seek to do business with Chinese firms. The growth of China has forced it to abolish policies that curtailed the freedom of citizens and foreigners. Chinese culture is spreading because of the freedom its citizens are enjoying in traversing the world and establishing investment elsewhere.
China has been on the rise over the last three decades. Its economic advancement and political stability have positioned China as an economic and political force in the world whose presence influences the rest of the world. The economic model adopted by China and its intolerance to corruption due to communist leadership has seen the country become the largest economy in the world. Chinese culture and values are most after in the world with schoolchildren learning the Mandarin language. As China continues to develop, its influence will be significantly felt through the various investments it making in developing countries.
Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø, and Vincent Gallucci. “The return of China, post-Cold War Russia, and the Arctic: Changes on land and at sea.” Marine Policy 72 (2016): 240-245.
Eisemann, Joshua, Eric Heginbotham, and Derek Mitchell, eds. China and the developing world: Beijing’s strategy for the twenty-first century. Routledge, 2015.
Hirst, Tomas. A brief history of China’s economic growth. 2015, 30 Jul. retrieved from https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2015/07/brief-history-of-china-economic-growth/
Hu, Weixing. “4 The rise of China and Chinese IR theories.” Constructing a Chinese School of International Relations: Ongoing Debates and Sociological Realities 9 (2016): 68.
Jain, B. M. “China Orders the World: Normative Soft Power and Foreign Policy.” (2016): 113-114.
Kim, Samuel S. China, the United Nations and world order. Princeton University Press, 2015.
Lin, Justin Yifu. “The rise of China and its implications for economics and other developing countries.” Area Development and Policy 2.2 (2017): 109-119.
Nielsen, Laura. “Chinese aid effectiveness in Africa and the role of the HIPC Initiative.” (2015).
Uno, Raina. The Rising of China: Its industrialization, Urbanization and its consequences. 2015, February 5. Retrieved from https://history.libraries.wsu.edu/spring2015/2015/02/05/humans-and-the-environment-the-history-of-air-pollution-and-the-effects-on-china-today/
Zhao, Suisheng. “Rethinking the Chinese World Order: the imperial cycle and the rise of China.” Journal of contemporary China 24.96 (2015): 961-982.
Zhu, Zhen, et al. “The rise of China in the international trade network: a community core detection approach.” PloS one 9.8 (2014): e105496.