In European history, Medieval Period continues from 5th to 15th century. This period starts after fall of Western Roman Empire and then amalgamated with the age of Renaissance. Middle Ages are divided into three traditional divisions in which first one is classical antiquity, then medieval period and lastly the modern period. The medieval period is further divided into early, high and late Middle Ages. There are many historians and scientist in the Western Europe who are devoid of interest due to the fall of Roman Empire. It was the sterile desert in the history of science in the medieval age. Such conditions make the middle ages as Dark ages that evoke the environment of illiterate leaders and rulers. It was the irrational gumshoe of the Roman and Greek period of intention and great philosophy.
Ferro, Luisa, and Giulio Magli stated that Alexander founded Alexandria in 331 BC and is noticed as the summit of many debates on the supreme town. Furthermore, Plato continually anticipates the development of the perfect city. Such sort of inspirational principles was based on the harmony that was linked to divine and laws. These inspirational principles were also mirrored in the mathematical exactitude in the design of ‘Hippodamian’ city plan. Due to the involvement of ‘Alexandria the Great’, the city becomes the most prominent representation of supremacy of its celestial originator. The demanding order of their plan was reflected in the cosmic command in acquiescence with the principles of orthogonal grid.
Additionally, the study stated that the Royal Library of Alexandria that is found in Alexandria, Egypt is one of the greatest modern libraries in the ancient world. Ptolemy I Soter kept most of the library books in papyrus scrolls. The amount was not available that how many such scrolls were maintained at that time, but it is estimated that they range from 40,000 to 400,000 in its height. This library was dedicated to the muses who were the nine goddesses of the arts. It thrived at the time of patronage of the Ptolemaic dynasty. It is considered as the most important center of scholarship after it was constructed in the 3rd century BC. It was endured dominant utile Roman conquest Egypt in 30 BC with everything of the library including works, lecture halls, gardens and meeting rooms. The library was known as the largest educational platform where every book was available, and it was later known as the Museum of Alexandria. In the Royal Library of Alexandria, many of the famous thinkers have studied and added something in their knowledge after exploring many books (König, Jason, Aikaterini Oikonomopoulo, & Greg Woolf).
With the conceited hindsight, the contemporary viewpoint of the medieval society is barbaric Europe. In the Dark ages, poverty and illiteracy had turned the engineering works, and virtual unity of the Pax Romanum, and mounting church stifled development. There is very little evidence of the progress of society during the period of 500 to 1400. Charlemagne had tries to inaugurate literary traditions and after that Middle Ages have done progressions in the philosophy of science and modification of the scientific method (Clagett).
Ellis stated that the period of early medieval society was from 500 to 1000 AD that is known as the period of ‘True Dark Ages’. It was the time when medieval society was moved towards the barbarism and ignorance. We cannot say this time was a wide-ranging desert, but we comprehend that reading Saxons, Viking, and many other people have stopped the advancement of science. The verdant west Ireland met the disparaging power of the gray Atlantic ascetic monks that had formed beautiful and vivacious illuminated manuscripts.
During Medieval age, it was enticing to sack Northmen as savage, uncivilized boors, overlooking that their major longboats stunning achievements in the field of engineering, hundred years are ahead of their period. Saxons and Vikings were able to do the gorgeous and eye-catching metallurgy and another sort of metalwork. They were also expert in making fine swords and stunning jewelry that is found in Ladbyskibet. It shows that even the progress was slower in the medieval age due to the Dark Ages, but at the same time craftsmen pushed new boundaries and tried new techniques in the extended domain. By using such techniques enhanced their trading into other countries including Greece, China, and Egypt.
Additionally, it is not wrong to say that the eras after the fall of Rome, remained in but big but little progress from the 5th century to the 9th century. Philosophy and serious thoughts were not lost into the west in that period, and they preserved the religion and Byzantium. The larger rural and evicted population had started to reconstruct from the failure of Rome. Additionally, religious studies have kept few scientific processes alive while significant pedagogic undertakings alarmed the Bible. The monks of the Western Europe had studied medicine, to care the sick, astronomy, star observation and date setting for all the crucial Easter. The science of the medieval had kept mathematics, geometry and their methods alive (Clagett).
During the 9th century, the minor residues of the preserved gen moved towards the life. The Western Europeans had strained for the systematic learning process. The rulers of that period had given realization to the individuals that education is the best way to bring unity and peace in the society. That was the time when developmental progress seems evident in many domains of science. This period was named as the Carolingian Renaissance as it was the time when Charlemagne strained to make information as the foundation of the medieval society. He was the ruthless Emperor but was the great believer in the power of the knowledge as learning can bring the person from earth to the sky. It was the time when revitalizations in the art, education, and culture were promoted through the use of Catholic Church to convey information, knowledge, and teaching. Many Latin texts were ordered for translation, by this astronomy was expanded in the medieval ages.
In England, Alcuin of York had initiated educational scheme in theology, art, geometry, arithmetic, and astronomy. Just like the Carolingian, he promoted learning through the establishment of educational institutions. This period was the clear reflection of the classic age as they had attempted to enhance knowledge. This process was terminated because of the disintegration of Frankish Empire after the decease of Charlemagne and recompense of barbarian impositions. Few of the learning centers adhered obstinately to scholarly recreations throughout the social and political turmoil. The teaching of philosophy, theology, and logic would fuel the development of utmost Christian thinkers, and it was the time Western European Medieval society moved towards the further in its developmental period.
Ancient Egyptians have many contributions in the development of science including medicine, alchemy, architecture, etc. These contributions are the way to enhance to human knowledge in such fields. The major contribution was in the ancient astronomy, and the Mesopotamians as the primary focus of their work were based on the agriculture and predicting the seasonal changes. As they have done a lot of work on seasons and its predictions. In the earliest advanced citizens of the civilizations, Ancient Egypt possessed amusing religious tradition that had pervaded every aspect of society. In the previous cultures, the behavioral patterns of sky lead towards the creation of numerous myths to explain the phenomena of astronomy and its related endeavors. Conversely, Neugebauer stated that, for the Egyptians, the astronomical practices go beyond the legend. They have created many huge temples and pyramids that were built with particular astronomical orientation. This thing predicts that astronomy in the medieval period has both practical and religious determinations.
The Ancient Egyptians just like the ancient Greeks and Romans have provided contemporary historians with the extensive knowledge. The presented the evidence about the attitude towards the medicines and through using their medical knowledge. Ackerknecht and Haushofer stated that just like the prehistoric man, some of the beliefs of Ancient Greeks were based on the myths and legend. Some of them have such belief systems that illness is because of some legend or such type of irrational myths, but it was just due to the human plain common sense and anatomy. With time, the developmental progress seems in the Ancient Greek, and they have worked a lot in the science especially in medicine, they have found the treatment of different diseases. In the Ancient Egyptians, treatment was not only cured through magicians and medicine men, instead, but patients were also referred through doctors and physicians for proper treatment.
To conclude it is stated that in the European history, medieval period continued from 5th to 15th century. Ferro, Luisa, and Giulio Magli reported that Alexander founded Alexandria in 331 BC and is viewed as the peak of many debates on the supreme town. The Royal Library of Alexandria that is found in Alexandria, Egypt is one of the greatest modern libraries in the ancient world. It is considered as the most important center of scholarship after it was constructed in the 3rd century BC. Ancient Egyptians have many contributions in the development of science including medicine, alchemy, and architecture etc.
Ackerknecht, Erwin H., and Lisa Haushofer. A short history of medicine. JHU Press, 2016.
Clagett, Marshall. Ancient Egyptian science: calendars, clocks, and astronomy. Vol. 2. American Philosophical Society, 1989.
Ferro, Luisa, and Giulio Magli. “The astronomical orientation of the urban plan of Alexandria.” Oxford Journal of Archaeology 31.4 (2012): 381-389.
König, Jason, Aikaterini Oikonomopoulou, and Greg Woolf, eds. Ancient libraries. Cambridge University Press, 2013.
Neugebauer, Otto. A history of ancient mathematical astronomy. Vol. 1. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.