Healthcare is a right or a privilege, is currently the most debated issue, which needs strong arguments to deduce any result. People believe that it is the right of individuals to pursue happiness, but that does not mean that others have to make them happy. Similarly, it is a concept that health is a fundamental need but is not to say that State or other people are responsible for it. However, my stance is different. I disagree with these opinions, and I firmly believe that healthcare is a right. It’s not a privilege. It is the duty of the State to take care of its people.
My thesis statement is that every individual man and woman has the right to good healthcare irrespective of income and race. The paper will have the statistics and the recorded history of the number of people who have granted healthcare as a right and not as a privilege. The importance of healthcare cannot deny if we look at the history and statistics. There are many social, cultural as well as economic factors that are responsible for biasness in facilitating people. Healthcare is also skewed because of these factors. As stated before, many rights are not given to people because they are of a different race. They are not given their right to proper healthcare. Many cases have been reported where people died because medical assistance was not provided to them for being black. What is the value of healthcare in the constitution as well as in the legislative power? The question was asked to Miss America, and her response lit the fire in America. She was asked about her opinion on Healthcare, and she replied it was a privilege. The President of the American defense academy said that healthcare is not a function of Government. The Editor in Chief of Daily Wire stated that healthcare is a commodity, not a right. All these people argue that health care should not be granted to everyone. Obamacare was a program launched by Obama under the affordable act. He wanted to make sure that every individual gets the necessities of life including good health. Many people took great advantage of Obamacare, and the President got fame and goodwill. However, Trump has promised to repeal Obamacare because he is not convinced that healthcare should be given to everyone at the cheapest rates or even free.
Healthcare means maintaining the health at a particular level. It may also mean prevention of diseases under the consideration of doctors and physicians. Healthcare means to keep a record of health by taking a test and required treatments. Healthcare is a necessity of life. Only a healthy person can survive in this polluted world, where food items are full of chemicals, and junk food is preferred over healthy food. People are so much busy in their lives that they do not have time to take care of themselves, exercise, and consult doctors regularly. In all such scenarios, real health is the biggest blessing. Everybody is making efforts to fulfill their appetite, and the basic needs of the body. Health care is the topic of discussion nowadays.
People are unable to have the necessary facilities for health care as their rights. Those who think that healthcare is a privilege like Miss America; are saying this because they have this privilege. Every ordinary person and I will never say this because it is the necessity of life, so it’s a human right. Anyone who does not owe the government job does not have the facility of health care, and then who is responsible in case of his major illness or death. It is the responsibility of the government to provide ease to their people, who selected them among all. The countries like the United States where people have their own businesses are related to private sectors, are retired or do not have any job what they should do in case of a medical issue. Although I recognized that it is a burden on the government to pay such large bills, still there should be some right for everyone. From the very first step, when a child is born to the last stage of his life and his last breath, he needs health care. Every person cannot afford the high bills of the hospitals so there should be some compensation from the government to facilitate them. If we talk about human rights or consider healthcare as a human right, it means that everyone has the right to attain the maximum level of health both physical and mental, by medical centers, hospital, and physicians. It also includes healthy living conditions and clean environment. All should get the equal rights from the healthcare department, and they must be ensured that there is no discrimination on any basis.
History, Principle, and practice of health and Human care
The earliest record found in the history of the U.S was in the 19th century. The United States does not focus on healthcare issues while it was a major topic of discussion in Canada and the United Kingdom. The United States has its policies suffering from the hate of people for them. There came a revolution in an industrial area; they started offering people a lot of jobs and in the start due to lack of experience in handling the things many got injured in their workplaces, then the workers made their union who talked about their issues and the first time that union raises this matter of health care. In the 1900’s the United States had the well-organized medicine, and within the next decade almost 62,000 physicians became part of this, but they were not supportive enough to start a healthcare system. President Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909) gave a little bit of importance to individual health, by considering that he needs healthy people for a strong nation, but he did not take the initiative. (Schimmel,2012)
There was an organization American Association of Labour Legislation (AALL) that worked for healthcare. They approved the bill by keeping in mind the working class and the people below average to get health care, but later that bill was rejected by American Medical Association (AMA) and the insurance policies. Their business suffered from this law, especially in the case of life insurance. When is the government providing compulsory insurance, then why Americans will take their private insurance? During the first World War, an act was passed with name War Risk Insurance Act, which gave benefits to military men who died or got injured to support their families, but act ended with the end of the war. With the advancement in the field of medicine, doctors started charging more the normal patients, and it became an issue. Then the teachers got combined and started taking payment before their treatment.
In the era of the great depression, health care became a topic of debate in the country. But the government did not take it seriously and moved their tension towards old age benefits. Then President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1933-1945) worked for healthcare. He passed the health insurance bill also comprising the old age benefits. But again the AMA opposed that bill, which in results in Social Security Act 1935. According to this act, the state will help the unemployed and disabled. When the Second World War started, again the focus of the government diverted to the war, and the topic of healthcare was removed from their minds for some time. After the end of the war and the next President took over the charge, he again formed a bill Truman’s Plan, again that plan followed the opposition of AMA, and they called it a social move. They gave their plan in which the private insurance option was given to the willing citizens by imposing the third party in a health care system. Then the effective polio vaccines were made and tested. In the same year the doctors transplanted the first human organ to his twin brother, this advancement increased the cost too. The government started keeping track of NHE for the GDP. In 1970 the NHE was found to be 6.9 percent of GDP. In 1980 it reached 8.9 percent. In 1986 the COBRA was signed which allowed enrolling in the former employee’s health plan. The NHE reached 12.1 percent in 1991. In 1996 Clinton signed the HIPPA which made privacy standards for an individual. Millions of Americans used the program initiated by George W. Bush, according to which Medicare should include drug prescription coverage. (Gruskin,2007)
Former President Barack Obama did a lot in the field of health care. He made the healthcare reforms; he passed the health care law, without wasting a little time after coming into power. He signed the PPACA act on 23rd March 2010, known to be ACA in law. Eight Million people signed the insurance through ACA in 2013, and by 2015 it increases to 11.7 Million. People were estimating that every one out of seven people will deny health insurance but their guess failed. (Obama, 525)
History of Healthcare crisis
Many of the crisis regarding healthcare was discussed previously in the past. Still, there is a lot of crises in History to be discussed. As discussed earlier every President of America has different intentions; there are very rare like Former President Barack Obama who started making the efforts from the very first day. When they came into power, firstly they enjoyed this power, and then they began working. Every next President has a different perspective regarding healthcare, and he worked according to that. Some changed the entire health system by implementing various laws and acts, and some did not disturb the previous cycle. The Healthcare crisis becomes crisis from simple problems because of many uninsured citizens. All the developed countries almost have their entire citizen insured. The cost of healthcare is much more increased than the wages of people because of inflation. With the advancement in the field of medicine, physicians started taking a lot of costs for very simple treatment. As there is no check and balance on their policies, they took advantage of the patient’s weaknesses. The third party the private insurance companies took advantage of these issues and made different categories of citizens according to their income which makes healthcare harder for the poor citizens. There is also racial discrimination which leads America to be far less in the economy than Canada. (Daschle,2008)
Social Determinants of Health Inequalities
When we talk about reducing health issues that means we are trying to reduce the social and economic issues, as they are loosely coupled with health. Health inequality was more concerned when we saw the inequality in income and wealth of citizens. These problems are avoidable, but the authorities are not paying attention to this issue. There are two main hurdles in the way of social determinants. One is the lifestyle of individuals who are poorly indulging in smoking, and drinking and are drug addicts. Secondly, we do not mean health when describing health care. Due to these inequalities, the United States is spending much more on health care as compared to other countries. People do not have direct access to medical care in the United States which results in a huge debate in the social world. There is also racial discrimination in America, which leads to the poor health care for inferior people. (Gamble, 2012)
Social determinants of health influence health-related behavior; they include the things needed for healthy life like healthful foods and walkability. Social factors are affecting health adversely in the last two decades. People become drug addicts or started drinking alcohol because of racial discrimination. People are living in higher societies, using drugs as a fashion symbol, without knowing their adverse effects on their bodies. The U.S population shows more effects of socioeconomic gradients in the health sector. People are wrongly influenced by racial and ethnic groups; they become psycho and think that they are a misfit in this society. (Marmot, 2005)
Constitutional rights and Legislative Power
Health or Medicare does not exist as a word in the whole constitution of the United States. There is no direct address for health in the constitution. The bill of rights was added to law back in 1791. The second bill of rights was passed in 1944. There was an amendment made in the Constitution regarding the rights of healthcare in 2011. According to that amendment, everybody has a right to have quality health care from the government, but Congress has the power whether to implement it or not. (Swendiman, 2012) Former President Barack Obama considered this as the right of the individual in his time and applied and provided this facility to the people, but other presidents may have the difference in opinion. The debate on healthcare results in very controversial issues like cost, coverage, and quality issues.
Supreme Court does not give direct orders for healthcare as a right, but they said it’s the duty of the government to provide healthcare in some issues. While Congress made certain efforts to provide benefits to a citizen, they pass different laws for children, old age, and disabled people. They also approved the acts and started different Insurance program for Medicare. People purchased their health insurance according to ACA policies. Different states made changes in the constitution according to their need; they may opt or nullify the law according to the circumstances, which leads to constitutional issues. There is no direct discussion about healthcare in the constitution, that’s why Supreme Court plays a vital role in this matter. They always take notice of amendments made to the constitution. Supreme Court passed the fourteen-point amendment which implies the principle of equality. (Braveman,2003) The rights of women regarding pregnancy are also reserved, which is their will to do an abortion if they have some issue, or they can continue with it, in the protection of the court. To analyze the constitution, the court uses the rational basis test. Supreme Court also pays attention to the discrimination issue of wealth. The court passes the amendment that Congress provide the facility of healthcare to the entire individual on an equality basis without discriminating them into different categories.
A report states that The enactment of health care legislation is found in Article 1, Section 8 which states “he Congress shall have the Power to lay and collect Taxes, to provide for the general Welfare of the United States, and on the last of this section it states that the Congress shall have the authority to make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers. Preceding powers means taxing and spending power” (Healthcare, 2012)
Miss America replied to the question when she was asked about how she will solve the nation’s problem, and what she thinks of healthcare as a privilege or human right, she said: “I’m going to say it’s a privilege. As a government employee, I am granted healthcare, and I see first-hand that for one to have health care, you need to have jobs. So, therefore, we need to continue to cultivate this environment that we gave the opportunity to have healthcare as well as jobs to all American citizens worldwide.” (Sutton,2015)
The statement she made is technically correct in the current times in the United States, where the State has already faced the challenges in these circumstances this is the privilege. There are no such instructions in the constitution to make people thanks the government for providing this facility. And why should the government provide this to the people who are not doing anything in reward for the state? The government servants are working for it; there all their efforts result in the betterment of the country so that they can avail this privilege. But it will be a burden on the government if it considers as a right of the people. They should do some work for them, to be able to take care of their families and provide them with health services.
Former President Barack Obama launched a project with the name Obamacare. He said that it’s the right of every individual to get healthcare at the expense of the government.( Manchikanti,2009) As each person is the part of the nation and health is the core necessity so government should aid in providing them with the best health services. Millions of people take advantage of Obama’s program, and that’s the main reason the majority of his population liked him. He started working on the healthcare issue from the very start of his rule and gave the right to healthcare till the end. The new president Trump was not for giving this opportunity to his people, as he considered it as a privilege.
I am in complete favor that healthcare is the right of every human being. Healthcare should be for everyone without any discrimination by equality. The healthcare system should be transparent in the sense that everybody knows the system’s liabilities and their responsibilities towards the system. There should be affordable treatments for everyone. There is no interruption of private insurance companies. The government should make the system for healthcare; provide healthcare centers according to the need of the population. Doctors and staff should behave equally with the people. There should be some checks and balances on them as they are not taking too much money for treatments. These centers provide quality services to patients, making them feel better and more comfortable. Information should be readily available to the patients, which develops their trust in the institutions. Individuals have the right to consult a doctor against their fears.
The absence of insurance makes secure access to basic health. People who ensured they could frequently visit the clinics and hospitals, their companies show concern about them in a result they have better health as compared to uninsured people due to lack of facilities. Every American has the right to have quality care and some importance shown to them. They have the right to choose their physician, and if they are not comfortable with their doctor, they can change him. Lack of health results in different social issues, and it causes social discrimination. Maintaining the health of the individual and keeping them safe from further illness are their rights. There is also a responsibility towards the people that they should enroll them in the near centers for the regular check-up. They should cooperate with the doctors and staff. Do not put more load on the government in the forms of treatment, try to adopt the less costly treatments. Always follow the instructions to maintain discipline. Try to keep the environment healthy. There should be some amendment made to the Constitution regarding healthcare. It should be considered a a human right and should give to all Americans (Swendiman, 2012)
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