Something seemingly more common in today’s time period interesting is early teenage pregnancies. It seems that the number of young mothers we have, are rising each day, and with those early teenagers becoming pregnant, they seem to be unaware of the health risks and factors they may deal with. Risks of teenage pregnancies include mortality of the mother, or the baby, maybe even both, as well as mental health disorders such as postpartum depression due to the lack of social support in the young mother’s life. Teen pregnancy creates a health risk because it affects the baby, the teenager, and the parents of the impregnated teen.
One of the main health factors dealing with teenage pregnancy is the cause of death. As stated by researchers Jonas, Crutzen, Borne, Sewpal, and Reddy. Difficulties faced by teenagers during pregnancy and birth of the child worldwide are another cause of death for girls of age 15-19, whereas girls of age below 16 are at higher risk of death of the mother or severe illness as compared to t-girls above 20 (2016). This means that the birth outcome is very poor in thoughts of their health. As a result of teenage pregnancy, it can lead to ill health, as well as an unhealthy birth weight for the baby.
Another issue tied to teenage pregnancy is social support. Some see it as a voluntary act. Act of sentiments should be provided by any relative, spouse, companion, or others and this action can be given in different ways such as Physical, instrumental (Monitory), emotional (Love, empathy, caring), Information and Appraisal (guidance towards conducting self -evaluation) (Kim, Connolly, and Tamim 2014). Though social support can be seen as a voluntary act, in some ways it may be necessary for expecting mothers. Seeing that some women may suffer from postpartum depression after the delivery of their baby, it has been found that depression may decrease with social support.
Delivery and Teenage pregnancy are on one hand linked with adverse pregnancy outcomes and on other hand linked to low school achievement, living in scarcity, and increased cost of health care. Earlier research deduced linkages between different issues with teenage pregnancy. These issues may involve neonatal or adverse maternal results, like preterm delivery, stillbirth, low birth weight, maternal anemia, postneonatal death, and death of the mother. Further Challenges girls facing Teenage pregnancy are exposed to include
Premature Birth: Due to being pregnant in your teens can cause a risk of premature birth of the baby. Secondly, Anemia is one of the issues. Mothers during pregnancy especially in their teenage, usually face abnormally low levels of red blood cells. Usually, this issue is linked to a deficiency of iron thus affecting both, the baby and the mother. Due to this issue, the baby’s development can also be affected. Thirdly, postpartum depression can be one issue after being a teenage mother. It’s a mood disorder and can happen anytime in the first year after delivery. This mood swing may include sadness, anxiety or difficulty sleeping. Whereas, in extreme conditions mothers also can think of hurting themselves or the baby. Fourthly Care and support from the family can help teen mothers to overcome their issues. No doubt that not every mother or child can face health issues but certainly risks are high. Getting care and love from the parents can help the mother to decrease health problems while pregnant. Hence it is necessary to go for a checkup as soon as possible and create an association to keep the baby and mother strong. Furthermore, factors of risk for adverse outcomes in teenage pregnancy are the history of the mother related to her childhood experiences Like physical, emotional, and sexual abuse or violence of intimate partner, separated or divorced parents, living with a person who faces mental illness or substance abuse or is involved in criminal activity. Such events are linked with smoking, successive behaviors related to sexual risk, mental health problems like depression, and alcohol consumption. The Antiquity of the health of maternal exposure to negative experiences of childhood is linked with an enlarged risk of fetal death. No matter what, all children face these experiences. Supportive measures such as strong bonding with family, feelings of self-esteem and accomplishment, good parenting, community, and the school can control the influence of negative experiences.
Some Experts are of the view that it is perceived that the main cause of increasing the rate of Aids is Teenage pregnancy or mothers who are not married. But now in the recent era, where technology has gone so wide teenage pregnancy has not been that much frightening as it was before. The HIV infection has now achieved a proper treatment which has made pregnancy or raising a child quite less inconvenient. Furthermore, an argument has been in view that rather this matter is self–governing suggestion or defined by cofounding influences. However, these health risks are lowered in second pregnancies. Whereas there are consistent results when we differentiate the outcomes of first and second pregnancies. The studies have however still failed to include smoking and socioeconomic deprivation as one the issues of teenage pregnancy. Moreover, one more issue related to this problem was the absence of a father. Larger exposure to the absence of a father was linked with adolescent pregnancy or sexual activity. Whereas this risk was linked with personal, Familial, or ecological disadvantages. After reviewing the outcomes, there was consistent evidence that the absence of a father effect involvement in sexual activity at an early age, or pregnancy in the teenage instead of mental health problems or behavioral complications, or educational accomplishment.
In order to decrease such issues or make them safer, there is some programs related health of adolescents. Moreover, research shows that investing in children early can make their reproductive health behaviors years later. For e.g. in order to get long-term positive results, the studies have suggested conducting intensive and high-quality early childhood programs. Particularly, teenagers who are enrolled in childcare programs or Pre Schools that are more specifically focused on increasing information are seen to have fewer pregnancies or births as compared to those who are not attending or enrolled in such programs. Studies based on experiments suggested that teenagers involved in community or volunteer work are less involved in sexual activities as compared to the ones who are not registered in such courses or activities. Activities entail a combination of teenage progress (entails participating in activities like sports, employment, educational mentoring, or performing arts) and sex education of can affect the frequency of adolescent pregnancy. However, these programs are long-term and intensive thus seen affecting more girls as compared to boys. Whereas, programs on occupational training are seen to have little effect on adolescents’ reproductive health behavior.
While concluding the study, we deduced that the research done in the field of adolescent reproductive health highlights the events and manners which can direct teens about issues such as becoming sexually experienced, having various sexual partners, being presently active sexually, being pregnant, using contraception, or giving birth, else get involved in such activities which can lead to STDs. After reviewing the research, the one setting the policy or the one who is providing the service may conduct such courses which may support youngsters to prevent sexually transmitted diseases or pregnancy. Further experimental studies have deduced that other measures should also be taken such as programs that might include education about improving reproductive health outcomes which may entail focusing on investing in early childhood, this may entail the ones in school or outside the school ( involved in volunteer activities) and nurses should be sent to visit adolescent mothers. This may reduce their chances of becoming pregnant again. Merging all the promising approaches from evaluations done through experiments performed along with best-fit policies can make our future a better living place.
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