Story, K. T., Hanson, D., Ade, P. A. R., Aird, K. A., Austermann, J. E., Beall, J. A., … & Chang, C. L. (2015). A measurement of the cosmic microwave background gravitational lensing potential from 100 square degrees of SPTpol data. The Astrophysical Journal, 810(1), 50.
Story et al. (2015) provide a comprehensive analysis as well as evaluation of the cosmic microwave background regarding gravitational lensing potential. The approach is demanding and the use of data from the first two seasons during the observation proves useful. The use of SPT pol, as well as the polarization-sensitive receiver, prove helpful during the entire project. Covering 100 deg is such a wide scope in any observation making this research comprehensive enough. The arcminute resolution during the study stands at a value close to 150 GHz. The use of the quadratic estimator is also a crucial instance for the study. It makes it possible to get maps that represent the CMB lensing potential. That comes from a combination of the current CMB temperatures as well as those of the polarization maps. The formation of the minimum-variance is possible after the combination of the lensing potential maps.
The use of the signal-to-noise ration banking on a ratio greater than one is used for the entire research. The map stands out as one of the highest in history. The map will be used in some instance due to the strength. That prompts its use in various cross-correlation utilizing various tracers of large-scale designs. Calculating the power spectrum for every lensing potential is also an essential aspect of the research. It is mandatory to report any value between. The value emerges as the primary result of the finding. The ability to restrict to polarized data result to APOL = 0.92 ± 0.24 (Stat.) ± 0.11 (Sys.).
Bartelmann, M. (2006). Applications of gravitational lensing in cosmology. In Astrophysics Update 2 (pp. 213-256). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A clear understanding of the gravitational lensing is a crucial aspect of the article. Bartelmann (2006) outlines that gravitational lensing is an aspect that originates from light masses that deflect from various sources. The physical state, as well as the composition of such masses, is not a matter of concern in such an instance. Most of the matter present in the universe appears dark. Such a confirmation is the main reason for the development of gravitational lensing into a primary tool to foster learning of some aspects related to masses in the world. Key aspects of such masses include the distribution, composition as well as the amount.
The ability to summarize the theory of gravitational lensing makes the article favorable in the field. The start of the summary is from the Fermat’s principle. The application of such an aspect is useful while isolating lenses such as the compact objects, galaxy cluster as well as the galaxies. Cosmologically related applications also prove helpful in the article. Main ones under consideration include the search for compact dark matters. Most of these matters exist in galactic halos. There is also the measurements that relate to the Hubble constant in the various galaxy lenses. Ultimately, consideration is given to the methods that help in mapping the dark matter regarding the galaxy clusters. The exploration of the theory of cosmological lensing provides a comprehensive understanding of the subject. After a discussion of the key concepts that relate to the large-scale structures, consideration is given to the result of the research in communicating meaning.
Li, N., Gladders, M. D., Rangel, E. M., Florian, M. K., Bleem, L. E., Heitmann, K., … & Fasel, P. (2016). Pics: Simulations of strong gravitational lensing in galaxy clusters. The Astrophysical Journal, 828(1), 54.
According to the article, gravitational lensing is current one of the powerful tools used in investigating the dark side of the earth. The use of strong cosmological lensing is useful in such an instance since it probes all the existing properties that relate to dense cores. The current dense core is instances that exploits instance of dark matter halos and their presence have been in existence for decades now. Such a discovery is the reason for the possibility of studying the distant universe. Such usually happen at the flux level. The unavailability of the spatial resolution presents a specific aspect of limitation while executing key instances. The existence of scientific opportunities in the case arises due to the various studies that rely on strongly lensed variables. Even though realizing a robust potential lensing system is critical, some limitations exist. The primary barrier is the challenge of understating the statistical context. That is inclusive of the individual systems that must receive the follow-up design. Moreover, there is the statistic context that makes use of the more significant samples related to the strong lenses existing as a result of the survey efforts.
The development of the image simulation pipeline was motivated by the challenges. That indicates the possibility of inventing a new approach to solve problems that might arise in nearly every encounter. Pipeline for Images of Cosmological Strong Lensing is useful in obtaining string signals. Such signals normally occur from groups as well as cluster-scale lenses. The shift is currently on the use of PICS due to the number of advantages that they present in the modern society.