Academic Master

Tourism

Global Issues In Tourism And Aviation

Tourism is traveling for business or pleasure. Tourism may either be local (within the boundaries of one’s National country) or international. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council (2011), tourism generates a total estimate of 7.2 billion US dollars, and this amounts to over 9.8% of the total world’s GDP. Similarly, the tourism sector has been able to create job opportunities for more than two hundred and eighty-four million people all across the globe (Chhetri et al., 2017, P. 402). Predictions made are that there shall be steady growth in the tourism sector of 4% annually for the next ten years (Lim & Bouchon, 2017, P. 15). Tourism is a global phenomenon in many ways. First, tourism is a discretionary activity, implying that it is not a basic need for all people. Secondly, tourism develops economic importance on a worldwide scale due to the revenue accruing from tourist activities. Third, a majority of National governments across the world see tourism as a source of employment opportunities (Chhetri et al., 2017, P. 400). Lastly, according to studies, tourism is progressively becoming linked to the quality of life matters; this is because tourism has become a basic right in the developed and the Western industrialized countries (in other words, holiday entitlement). Also, in some underdeveloped countries, tourism may be advocated as a probable solution to poverty. The paper shall, therefore, discuss some of the trending global issues that are affecting tourism and aviation.

Terrorism

The first problem to consider is the issue of terrorism and its effects on tourism. From 1970 to 2013, there have been more than 127,000 incidents of terrorist attacks across the world (Sönmez & Sönmez, 2017, P. 115). Similarly, from 2000 to 2013, there have been over 55,000 terrorist incidences, with 167 of them targeting tourists (Liu & Pratt, 2017, P. 407). The same research work shows that a whopping total of 699 tourists were killed in these terror attacks, and 1,368 of them were injured. Conferring to Galily, Tamir, and Levy (2012), the definition of terrorism is an act of hurting representative symbols (Embassies of countries) or killing innocent people. Terrorism acts are driven by organizations or individuals who have some common beliefs and or those who are violently demanding recognition. Beliefs and some political motives mostly trigger terrorist acts. These suicidal acts are usually directed toward passive military targets and soft civilians. Hence, the major objective of any terrorist occurrence is to affect the group that they attack, thereby obtaining the attention and recognition of the political class.

The main reason behind terrorist attacks on tourists may be political factors, religious issues, social objectives, and lastly, publicity purposes. An example, in this case, is the bail bombing, where tourists from foreign countries are targeted (Liu & Pratt, 2017, P. 405). Similarly, there is the bombing of an international event. A perfect example is the case of the Boston Marathon, where the terrorists auctioned to gain publicity. In the same way, terrorists launch attacks so that they may weaken governments and ruin their political stability. The Economic motives for terrorism are to cause loss of income or foreign revenue and weaken the state’s economy, thereby enabling them to negotiate with the ruling government. When considering the social motives, terrorism commences to undermine social order. Others believe that terrorism is a perfect way of addressing the issue of social injustice, which is symbolized by the tourism industry. The main reason why tourists have become potential targets in recent years may be because of:

  1. The large gathering of people, especially in events.
  2. Developed infrastructure, e.g., in the transport sector, shopping centers, airports, and hotels.
  3. Tourists are harmless. Therefore, they are perceived as soft and easy targets.
  4. Damage to the image of the destination.

Effects of Terrorism on Tourism

Some of the consequences of terrorism include the reduction in tourism demand. People tend to flee from terror-prone destinations and relocate to more peaceful places where they do not have to fear for their lives. Increased cases of insecurity cause delays and tend to increase the cost of tourism due to the demand for the government to provide additional security personnel to take care of the tourists. Third, there is the relocation of tourism; this implies that tourists tend to shift to countries that are more secure. Such relocation leads to a massive loss of foreign exchange in the country, which is affected by terrorism. Finally, terrorism affects long-term investments negatively, and it may lead to major losses.

Natural Disasters

A natural disaster is a major threat to tourism. The increase in unpredictable global climatic changes, together with weather patterns, has led to a massive dip in tourism in many areas (Okuyama, 2018, P. 47). Serious disasters like tsunamis, earthquakes, and hurricanes have a long-term impact on the lives of human beings, infrastructure, natural environment, and the economy. Hurricanes and tsunamis have the largest effects on the tropical coastal regions, which at times happen to be the perfect tourist destination (Seraphin, 2018, P. 6). The physical, monetary, and emotional side impacts of this disaster are long-lasting, and they have a destructive effect on tourism in such areas. In the case of tsunamis and hurricanes, a few precautionary measures have been taken. There is an inadequate warning to stop tourists from canceling travel reservations and forgoing their trip before the calamity strikes (Pearce, 2017, P. 17). The storm path can be traceable online in the case of hurricanes, and this data can be used to warn the tourist so that they may cancel their plans in advance. After the disaster strikes, the region may not be able to accommodate tourists due to the destruction of infrastructure’s effect on the mentality and stability of the tourists. Such impacts can be constraining for tourists because they may assume that the area has not recovered from the calamity and that most tourists do not want to be in disaster-hit regions. An example, in this case, is the period after Japan suffered from a tsunami and earthquake in 2012; the nation tried to boost the public’s perception of the situation by offering tens of thousands of free airfare to boost their faith in tourists. As an additional point, a natural disaster can do excessive damage to the natural environment and physical sceneries like beaches, which are common destinations for most tourists.

Basing our argument on climate and its effect on aviation, we shall consider the consequential rise in sea level. The increase in sea level is caused by the increased melting of the glaciers, ice caps, and the thermal expansions of oceans. In areas with tropical storms, sea levels rise, storm surges and strong monsoons linked with intense extra-tropical cyclones pose a threat to the sustainability of airports in these coastal locations (Capoccitti et al., 2010, P. 63). The effects caused by storms can lead to flooding; an example is in Myanmar during the times of the tropical storms, and this makes the planning of new airfields difficult.

Technology

Technology is a factor that influences how any form of business operates; this implies that any changes in technology affect the whole operating process of a firm. Over the years, tourism and aviation occupations have increasingly developed due to the increase in the development of new technologies. Considering a global scale, for example, technology has been able to change the way tourism organizations operate, therefore bringing new understandings to the forefront. Inventions in aviation, like twin-engine aircraft, have allowed a large number of tourists to travel to various destinations (Duval, 2013, P. 500). Similarly, the improvements in communication technology have made airlines accessible through the promotion of destinations to attract tourists. Also, it has made payment collection more efficient.

Political Stability

Research has proved that there is a negative association between political uncertainty and tourism (Nunkoo & Gursoy, 2017, P. 326). Implications are that when the political instability of a country is high, the tourism industry is adversely affected. A study collected from 102 hotel directors and 73 travel organizations in Ukraine proved that there is a differential effect of political uncertainty on travel agencies and housing establishments (Saha et al., 2017, P. 227).

Cultural Diversity

Looking at the social-cultural impacts of tourism, there can be instances of cultural clashes that happen because tourism majorly involves the movement of people to diverse places. So, it leads to the development of social relationships among the persons who interact. Cultural clashes occur due to differences in culture, values, languages, ethnic beliefs, and religious groups (Coulthard et al., 2017, P. 306). In the same way, the crime level will increase, and this is because of the presence of a large number of tourists who spend a lot and who carry valuable goods.

Conclusion

In conclusion, various factors affect global tourism and aviation. Tourism is one of the main sources of revenue for most countries. Therefore, various efforts must be taken by the government to enhance and promote tourism. Improvements in the aviation sector can ensure that there is an adequate number of airplanes that tourists may use for traveling purposes. Also, airplanes will be safe and secure for traveling purposes. Similarly, for regions that are victims of natural calamities, precautionary measures can be taken to ensure that tourists are not affected by these natural occurrences.

Reference

Capoccitti, S., Khare, A. and Mildenberger, U., 2010. Aviation industry-mitigating climate change impacts through technology and policy. Journal of Technology Management & Innovation5(2), pp.66-75.

Chhetri, A., Chhetri, P., Arrowsmith, C. and Corcoran, J., 2017. Modeling tourism and hospitality employment clusters: a spatial econometric approach. Tourism Geographies19(3), pp.398-424.

Coulthard, S., Evans, L., Turner, R., Mills, D., Foale, S., Abernethy, K., Hicks, C. and Monnereau, I., 2017. Exploring ‘islandness’ and the impacts of nature conservation through the lens of wellbeing. Environmental Conservation44(3), pp.298-309.

Duval, D.T., 2013. Critical issues in air transport and tourism. Tourism Geographies15(3), pp.494-510.

Lim, S.E.Y. and Bouchon, F., 2017. Blending in for a life less ordinary? Off the beaten track tourism experiences in the global city. Geoforum86, pp.13-15.

Liu, A. and Pratt, S., 2017. Tourism’s vulnerability and resilience to terrorism. Tourism Management60, pp.404-417.

Nunkoo, R. and Gursoy, D., 2017. Political trust and residents’ support for alternative and mass tourism: an improved structural model. Tourism Geographies19(3), pp.318-339.

Okuyama, T., 2018. Analysis of optimal timing of tourism demand recovery policies from natural disaster using the contingent behavior method. Tourism Management64, pp.37-54.

Pearce, D.G., 2017. Destination management and visitor management: non-convergent literature but complementary activities and issues. Visitor management in tourism destinations, pp.9-21.

Saha, S., Su, J.J. and Campbell, N., 2017. Does political and economic freedom matter for inbound tourism? A cross-national panel data estimation. Journal of Travel Research56(2), pp.221-234.

Seraphin, H., 2018. Natural disaster and destination management: the case of the Caribbean and hurricane Irma. Current Issues in Tourism, pp.1-8.

Sönmez, S.F. and Sönmez, S., 2017. TOURISM, TERRORISM, AND POLITICAL INSTABILITY. Anatolia: Turizm Arastirmalari Dergisi28(1), pp.110-137.

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