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Health Care

Foundation of Nursing Education(ADN program and BSN program)


The rapidly developing era of the 21st century has marked new beginnings in different fields of education. It is in fact, opportunities, availabilities, and broad-based challenges to the various segments of society. It includes the advancement of technology and the changing environment of the globalized world. Similarly, education became highly sensible for all learners, which directly or indirectly attached to the concept of gaining knowledge. This also includes professionals and non-professional learners of the community who are trying to understand the concepts and the theories which might be helpful for them in their futures or their careers. In the same way, educational institutions and academic circles also require going through a comprehensive review of the courses and syllabus, to make it in conformity with the present-day challenges and evolving structure of society.


Change from an ADN program to a BSN Program 

The same is the case with the education of nursing. It requires highly motivated and professional skills to take care of those patients, who are increasingly adopting the characteristics of approaching the hospital and the daycare units. These people are also exceeding in numbers while having their age of above sixty. They need to be taken into the calm atmosphere, where they could find to meet all the necessaries of their life. Similarly, as nursing is a sensitive profession, it always needs transformation and inclusion of the changing trends that are overwhelming its courses with the due passage of time.

According to Van & Townsend (2000), many socioeconomic factors influence the working of nursing. The phenomena of revolution always cover issues like that of development in health care delivery and the related problems that are primarily connected with this field. As time passes, it provides undoubtedly a number of changes in different aspects of the same areas concerning the subject of nursing. In this regard, the program of nursing education that is run by the universities of the United States requires an overhauling and further extension to comply following the needs and the demands of the socio-economic context. Before deciding on the curriculum we must have a careful look at the issues and aspects that might affect our profession of nursing, directly or indirectly  (Einhellig, Gryskiewicz & Hummel, 2016).

Increasing trends of the explosion of the population and shifts in the US have challenged the preferences and the practices of the Nursing profession. More than twenty per cent of the people are having their age exceeding sixty years and older, while many others are of the age of eighty-five  (Nguyen et al., 2018). These statistics showed that before the year two thousand twenty, these were the rapidly enhancing group of people present in the community. Similarly, advancement in the health of the public and the care provided in the clinics also has increased the demands of each life cycle.

Life expectations of an individual with chronic and acute conditions have also challenged the clinical care system. Providence of effective and efficient care to these people placed hospital staff in difficulty as to how to deal with patients of these kinds and how the people could be satisfied with their services. There is a significant division in the types and stages of the diseases as the concept of diversity and the population increase (Van & Townsend, 2000). In the same way nature and forms of the disease also change the routine process of dealing with the respective patients. Mortality rates and the kind of morbidity dispersed and hence provided increased access to the large segments of the population towards caring measures.

Research and the knowledge of the nursing staff and the community must engage these issues of taking care of these changing types of ailments. In this regard, the team of the concerned sections has to maintain spiritual, physical, and psychological care for the more significant part of the population. It is because the majority of people are excessively indulging in such kinds of diseases (Kostiainen et al., 2018). These are demographics that are modifying with the passage of speed change in time of the modern world. In the same way, students getting admissions in the respective schools, colleges or nursing departments are increasingly expecting much more than that of the existing system available to the community.

Implications of learning theory over BSN Program

According to  Einhellig, Gryskiewicz & Hummel (2016), the productive cultural environment has also provided much more regarding the processes and the style of learning education in the school. This is, in fact, due to the racial and ethnic diversity available in a single college or the unit of one academy of nursing education. Most of the students who are getting admission to these schools are coming at a mature age, and with the rich experience of college or college life, expecting high for their careers is also a problem for these educational sectors of nursing  (MacLean et al., 2018). The challenges of dealing with these types of students getting enrolled in college have sparked much for the academics to provide an efficient and reform system. In the policy design, adopting the methods for education and the case materials must also address the issue of these students. Similarly, the setting for the clinical practice and the preferences chosen by the department must engulf the diversity of the student body and mind.

Other than these students, the excessive advancement in technological accessories has a profound impact on the services and the education provided to the nursing staff of the hospitals. Affordability to personal computers, face shape, and technology transfer has given much more to the explosion of speed and procession of the system, which ultimately has affected the educational and related branches of nursing. Progress in scientific research has developed technological instruments like of nanotechnology, which could check the very small kinds of diseases found in the body of the individual  (Van & Townsend, 2000). At this stage of development diagnosing a disease would cost less expensive and speedy clinical processes. That’s how the world is evolving and how the super creatures are advancing in this mortal world. The method of documentation in making the profiles and the records of the respective patients is no more of helpful, as all the data would be shared with electronic devices and the machines working in the clinics. Those types of data that were previously available only to the staff and related people could now easily be seen by the customer or the patient.

How nursing research is conducted in this post-modern world would be a serious question of consideration. In the clinics, they had to skill and learn the advanced methods of computer technology to get through the analysis and observation processes. In the same way, those laboratories that are engaged with highly technological machines could easily enhance the critical thinking and the cognition style of learning specific skills power of the nursing staff  (Carabez et al., 2015). Conducting the research would not serve the purpose unless it is engaged in following the advanced forms of using mechanical methodologies.

Development of New BSN Curriculum

As the world becomes globalized and internationalised, and cultures of cross-border are meeting with each other, the profession of nursing cannot distance itself from experiencing multicultural healthcare problems. Other than professional doctors or physicians, this class of medical faculty must have to learn and observe what is happening in other parts of the world or the regions. How people and the experts of a specific country are dealing with the disease or what changes happened to advance or develop the faculty of medicine would be the questions addressed directly to the nursing staff and its profession (MacLean et al., 2018).

For example, the society of the US is diverse in its culture, and those people that are regularly visiting, are bringing new infections and diseases like that to the local population. These types of problems must be addressed, and nurses must also get information that which country has the emerging disease that might be spread to their state. Similarly, how to tackle the issue of multicultural illness and how they could eliminate such types of problems related to the public health care of the people. Mostly poor class of the Asian or the African region possessed such kinds of health issues. While travelling to other parts of the world, like the US, they spread diseases and make people weak, and infections get transferred from one body to another body (Kardong et al., 2012). This should be considered seriously while designing a new curriculum or while extending the already running program of education for the nurses. These kinds of information and experiences would be fruitful in enhancing the existing knowledge of the trained or untrained working medical class.

Certain multinational corporations are working in various parts of the US. Those who are interacting and experiencing their dealings and communications must also realize their disadvantages. Because of this fact, workers from various parts of the world and regions came and communicated individual behaviours and health-related issues. They also left their good or bad activities there, which might affect the healthcare problems. Everything requires attention and care to go through before moving to set the criteria and the formulation of the policy for the course of the said work  (Hayden et al., 2014).

In a way, well-sourced and knowledgeable patients of this modernized world often expect from the service staff or the doctors that they must be taken into consideration while deciding the health of the patient. Sometimes it also happens that patients are asked to play an active role in the process of tackling the specific issue that is mostly concerned with the operating staff working in the hospital, including doctors and nurses  (Carabez et al., 2015). In the same way, old agers have severe concerns regarding their health, but they cannot be told by the nurse to avoid any mishap or psychological disorder because they might fall into the fear of the disease that is of a highly reasonable level.

Engulfed by the demands of the consumers and the facilitation of information provided to them by the media and the attached facilitators, patients sometimes require alternative therapies. In the present time, it has become influential on medications to use alternative treatments in a way that might not harm the request of these consumers. Several academic circles of the medical faculty have started reviewing these issues in light of advanced practices that are now added to clinical diagnosing. It is now imminent that consumers should be given the option to choose the complementary style of recovering from a particular type of healing and illness. Serving staff should be accomplished with the training and the skills of these models so that they could be able to handle any severe problem facing the person.

Justification for the BSN Program

The traditional way of dealing with and diagnosing problems and issues of the consumer is no longer applicable to this developed society. In this regard flourished research must be done on the part of nurses that could end the existing gap between a doctor or day carer and the consumer. Mostly the present scenario of healing and dealing with the therapies might spur consumers not to comply with all the instructions or the advice of the staff. There is then the strict need to enhance the knowledge through nursing research that how we should manage the new developing therapies available in different hospitals and clinics  (Hayden et al., 2014). The conventional style of recovering from any disease would not work unless new things are added to our society via technological advancement used to eliminate the pain faced by the client. To tackle such kind of development, it is essential to add a new, extended, and progressive system of education.

Science has given much more to our community and this world with progress; it has got right from the emergence of the Enlightenment period during the era of the middle ages. Ideas regarding death and life have also been changed. Scholars and scientists are of the view that an individual possessed the specific power to save his/her life, by following the most recent developments happened, in the field of science. They are, in a way, challenging the traditional and ethical values regarding the concept of death and dying. New models are in preparation and also completed to tackle the most severe illnesses which might cause death. Even new types of sets are arranged for people who are not interested in visiting daycare centres (Einhellig, Gryskiewicz & Hummel, 2016). They included hospice that would be home-based and the addition of spiritual practicing treatment in caring for the consumer. They also added group bereavement counselling to the developed caring support centre. Those who are graduating from the concerned school or the college must be given these types of areas for research, and these should be added to the coursework. An essential role of nurses must be here in above mention areas to make the profession more valuable and reliable.

Patients are now more involved in their nature and habits. As sensitivity is instigated inside the minds of almost every member of the community, necessary steps are required to handle the situation carefully. Among all of the others, this was also progress made by humans to sensitize people in every walk of life. Gone were the days when simple consumer approaches to the care centres for their welfare and well-being. Sophistication is added with a person (s) of every age, period or time. Therefore, issues like that of epidemiology, behavioral sciences, and the application of these on the patients demand acute skills and training. Among all of the factors, the mostly complaint one might be behavioral, which has a direct connection with the man who is in the process of care  (Nguyen et al., 2018). If we could elaborate, this care itself defines proper behaviour towards the specific person so that he could be able to live a happy and comfortable life. Here, psychology is automatically added to the field of nursing. Demonstration of these types of skills or the dealing that could manage these issues must be added to the course of nursing graduates. It also shows how important is the subject of nursing along with other areas of medical science in this era, that it touches and appeals to every issue in one or the other way.

There is also a problem that created new debate among the policy circles and scholars of subjects dealing with nursing. They are concerned with the report made by the Pew Commission, which is an independent body of researchers and has a good reputation all around. Their report expounded that most nurses are careless regarding the care of the patient. A survey has been conducted to look into the matter of those people who are placed in care centres for some recovery from healing or related issues (Kostiainen et al., 2018). It shows the non-seriousness of the caring staff, and those coming from these associate programs of nursing have no interest in caring and dealing with these ageing and dying people. It also shows how the students and the researchers have worked in their due course of time. Most of them are even not fair with their work both at universities and at the workplace.

Another problem that was also unfolded by the research organization and the writer of social context is that the shortage of staff in nursing is also a big problem. Most of the serving people are of higher age. There is a severe shortage of personnel required for sharing and serving the old age. Why students and learners are not interested in coming to the program cited for the education of nursing. According to MacLean et al. (2018), only academics, concerned universities, and schools could have the answer to this, and those who are by any means engaged with the research focused on the subject mentioned above. A new and younger student is coming to this field. The present class of the workforce comprises nurses, students, and teachers of higher age, that does not happen before.

Similarly, inefficient staff working in the clinics caring for older people is also caused by low-quality training and the lapses that are overwhelming the field of caring. That also shows that these people who are working in the clinics are not professionally supervised or have lesser chances of learning, during the time of their education. This was also an issue concerning the nursing staff that many of the members of the workforce have their other assignments as part-time jobs. They got appointed elsewhere with other private agencies or organizations. In this way, they cannot perform their duties and services, and hence, they are playing with the most concerned profession. They are also violating rules and regulations designed for their functions and responsibilities.

Incorporation of the ANA Code of Ethics in the BSN Program

In this regard, the code of ethics designed for the profession of nursing must be taken into consideration. The said code was developed to make it convenient for nurses should perform their due responsibilities in such a manner that their professionalism and the quality in caring for the nursing services must be accomplished  (Nguyen et al., 2018). The purpose of this ethical code is to bind the workforce of nursing staff to be careful while having protection and dignity for the patients. According to the rules of the ANA Code of Nursing guide, they are restricted to creating an environment of mutual trust between themselves and the patients residing under their care.

Five core areas are discussed for the professionals of nursing. Other than these sites of the rules that are recognized by the International Council of nursing, an individual could not be described as a professional or motivated staff member of the community. Those include human dignity, which is the primary responsibility of the individual to be given and to be followed. The concept of human dignity must incorporate all those ideas that are meant to save and qualify the dignity of old agers or the person in care. This core value is more important than any other thing which describes the concept of values.

Integrity has also been installed on the five core concepts regarding the profession of nursing. It qualifies its meaning when the functional relationship is there between the staff and the patient. Integration if as its value or by any means taken up by the employer to the employee or by the team to the patient, provides fruitful and admirable relations  (Hayden et al., 2014). It also gave the person under caring a sense of protection, which might not be there if the mutual trust area got careless. Similarly, the idea of integration could be best applied if the patient or the family of the person who is under care will cooperate with the working staff.

Autonomy of the authority given to the staff or the centre must be taken into consideration. There should not be any influence on the respective centre. It will have adverse effects both for the carer and for those who are under care. Sometimes or mostly, it happens that the free position of the centre gets challenged by those who are using unfair means to get into the services and facilitation provided to the average or ordinary people. It also explains that the staff or the nurse has the right to choose what is best or not fair for the patient. The latter could give advice and could add his/her comments in the due process, but no authority should be provided to them for influencing the decision of the nursing staff, or those who are caring.

Among those core areas that the International Council of Nursing defines, altruism possesses a vital place. Just to explain this, we have an idea that helping others freely or without any profit would be the purpose of humanity. In case of the professional manners, this could be applied to the person under care, and it will give much more to both the stakeholders, workers and the one who is working. In the same way, the concept of altruism defines that in the matter of serving others, one must not hesitate to take the front position (Carabez et al., 2015). It will enhance the respect and dignity of nurses if they can follow it systematically. Without having the intention of any profit from the patient, a nurse could be adequately explained under the concept of altruism phenomena. Service without benefit must be followed to make this profession an enormous and excellent unit of our social system.

Social justice, or the justice that penetrates society, explains that the concept of equality cannot be completed unless equality and the due rights of each member of the community must be completed. In the case of departmental services or organizational working, the concept of merit would not serve the meaning before giving or describing the duties of staff members according to the rules and regulations of the concerned organization. In this way, when we talk of social justice under the terms of public health care, everyone should be given all the rights that are necessary for his/her living. Checking, and diagnosing in the same way, with the charge of the same fee or free of costs rules should be applied to all. And when we concerned with the relationship between the patient and the caring nurse, it would be defined as both are accurately performing their duties (Kardong et al, 2012). The patient cooperates, while the nursing staff looks after all the old-age, that is placed under his supervision. Supervising his client in the best possible way would provide the team with an exemplary worker for all those who are not serving people and negating their duties.

Analysis of  FERPA

            The federal law was enacted to save the record of the students getting an education in various institutes. Privacy to the compliance of this document must be ensured. These terms could efficiently provide the basic requirements for most parents, who wanted to keep a check on their child’s activities.

Analysis of HIPPA

            Standard security services have been provided to the Department of Health, and human services have maintained that the data of all patients must be protected regarding their health problems. The data has been implied through electronic measures and especially through housed safeguards measures. This is, in fact, a dominating factor in ensuring the very important requirements of the patients.             

Regardless of these core areas defined and explained for the best services of the nurses to the people, there also are six Cs, for the midwives and nurses. They are designed to facilitate and provide services to the people, which are having issues with caring for public health. These include compassion first and others in a sequence, which came later. To talk and behave with the patient respectfully and politely. This area of above mention rules has the potential to provide a very kind atmosphere to the person who requires attention and rehabilitation. Care is also among the Cc that describes the reaction of staff toward a client. It is, in fact, unfolding the real meaning of protection. The overall phenomena of the subject revolve around this concept  (Van & Townsend, 2000).

Formative and Summative Assessments

Benefits and Limitations

With the help of summative assessments student nurses will be able to learn an instructional unit through the comparison of some benchmark or standard that is required to accomplish quality nursing practice. On the other hand, formative assessments are those exams in which students are assessed on how they are progressing in the program in which they are enrolled and whether are they able to accomplish the learning goals or not. The summative assessments are taken in the form of midterms or final projects. While formative assessments are not for grading purposes, they are to check the learning strength of the class or students. Therefore, both formative and summative assessments will be considered in the new BSN program.

In the same way, competence has also been placed in the core area for the patients who have required due attention and preferences. However the definition of ability because of keeping one in the center’s custody would be as that how the person has got the care in the respective place. It is up to the competence of the worker to place or to demonstrate herself adequately. Which will also show her operating style in the hospitals. Those members who are serious in their profession of caring might have severe lapses in working hours or the daycare centers, as they would not be able to do something for the patient. Skills and competence are always required for everyone to serve others.

Communication is also part of the rules designed to organize the profession of nursing. If you shout, cry, or get angry, you will not be able to serve the person who is designated before your administration. In the same way, those old agers that are having the habit of unusual behaviour must also be documented by the nursing staff. Because those people are old age and have no control over their personalities. They could be convinced by the attractive style of communication and the talk that must involve some joyful conversation. Words are more important than actions. These could be applied to the defective person to make them happy and more comfortable.

Incorporation and application of nursing methods in the new BSN Program

Accreditation Methods  

The methods given by the Accreditation Commission for Education in Nursing must be incorporated within the new BSN program, as it will help the student nurses, as well as the on-job nurses, understand the essential duties and responsibilities that they have to follow during their jobs. Courage and commitment also have a worth for the patients if the members of the daycare community could appropriately use them. The brevity or bravery must be the quality of a staff member that allows him to handle all the matters and issues relating to the person or his/her disease. Sometimes, there might have been some unusual condition, or the patient may have some severe illness containing the provision of death would not be placed supervisor to be fear, but he/she must care his problem dedicatedly and wisely. While one has the potential, if it is given to someone or he/she has developed in personality, to make porn proud in a group of other people. Those individuals having strong willpower can efficiently tackle any situation, whether dealing with a diseased person or a matter pertaining to administrative duties  (Nguyen et al., 2018). One must try to develop committed ideas in mind so that any unusual condition might not affect his/her temperament. In hospitals, it is noted that many of the nurses sometimes do not stand with those patients or persons having severe illnesses. Professional training is thus intimidated in this regard to counter such types of lapses. The morale of the other members also gets encouraged through the committed actions and deeds of an individual.

Method Analysis Assessment

Other than these values and the core areas that are defined, explained, and described by various institutes and organizations including hospitals, for the enhancement of the progress of the nursing services and the whole profession. There are specific methodologies that could be applied to the new program that is under the rule of change from two years associate degree to the full honorary curriculum as a Bachelor of Science in nursing  (Van & Townsend, 2000). These methods are used and have been tried before for the same purpose of development in the field of nursing. In this regard, the Council of the state boards of Nursing has unfolded specific points that could be fixed in the new plan program.


Quality & Safety initiatives in the new BSN Program

The new BSN program could be entitled to the characteristics of rigorous research that must cover all the related areas. The interviews and the visits to different daycare centres and hospitals must also engulf it. There must be proper funding, and the state exchequer should not have the hindrance in the issuance of the money for the projects, that would work under the new BSN program. An attractive package and the fruits of this business must be provided to encourage learners. The proper communication between the old agers and the students. Without giving due weight to the program, it must not be possible for the student to serve those old people in an accurate, efficient manner. Regular practice and the assignments of the student teacher and patient talk and conversation could also get a positive response, and counselling training at this level of education is essential for the students. In the same way, the time students of the BSN program must be incorporated with the knowledge that must involve the community. That would be very helpful for the students in enhancing their professional skills and standard of nursing education. This type of learning for the graduates of college would not only serve the real purpose of learning, but it would also benefit society at large. Last but the least, nursing education should be given particular preferences to make it useful for the community.


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Einhellig, K., Gryskiewicz, C., & Hummel, F. (2016). Social Justice in Nursing Education: Leap into Action.

Hayden, J. K., Smiley, R. A., Alexander, M., Kardong-Edgren, S., & Jeffries, P. R. (2014). Supplement: The NCSBN National Simulation Study: A longitudinal, randomized, controlled study replacing clinical hours with simulation in prelicensure nursing education. Journal of Nursing Regulation5(2), C1-S64.

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MacLean, S., Geddes, F., Kelly, M., & Della, P. (2018). Simulated patient training: Using inter-rater reliability to evaluate simulated patient consistency in nursing education. Nurse education today62, 85-90.

Nguyen-Truong, C. K. Y., Davis, A., Spencer, C., Rasmor, M., & Dekker, L. (2018). Techniques to Promote Reflective Practice and Empowered Learning. Journal of Nursing Education57(2), 115-120.

Van Ort, S., & Townsend, J. (2000). Community-based nursing education and nursing accreditation by the commission on collegiate nursing education. Journal Of Professional Nursing16(6), 330-335. doi:10.1053/jpnu.2000.18176



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