Forests are large areas that are predominantly filled with trees. There are hundreds of forests across the globe and there are many factors that are accounted such as the density of trees and ecological perspectives. The food and agriculture association states that forests tend to cover as many as 4 billion acres of land; this accounted for 30% of the earth’s land in 2006 (Alverson, Don & Walter). Forests are part of the dominant system on earth, and can be seen across the globe. Essentially, forests account for gross levels of the earth’s productivity, and harvesting tends to impact the ecosystem in a negative manner. Forests are traditionally designated to consist of trees, though, there are hundreds of defining definitions today.
One of the biggest forests exists in Taiga, Asia-Europe-North America. However, it is not exactly a forest, but is a Biome. Taiga is known to cover majority of portions from North America and Northern Russia. The land mass that it occupies in Russia is around 12,000,000 km2 (Yu, Guirui, et al.). That is more than the size of India and China, when added. Taiga is one of the largest forests that covers planet earth. Taiga is also known as the Boreal forest and it is one of the most threatened climates today as it has experienced drastic changes in the environmental temperature. For simple requirements such as toilet paper or timber logging, forests such as the Boreal forest are under great threat of welfare.
Other famous examples include the Amazon forests, in South America. This is one of the most well-known forests in the world and it is attractive to many visitors. Essentially, it is spread across parts of Venezuela, Bolivia, and Guyana. It is around 7,000,000 km2 (Yu, Guirui, et al.) It has some of the most diverse species in a biological sense. One of every ten living species can be found in the Amazon forests. There are over thousands living birds, mammals, animals, and other species that are scientifically registered in the forest. The Amazon forest also absorbs tons of carbon dioxide; as such, it is one of the most essential factors when it relates to the world’s climate.
As far as forest mammals are concerned, some of the largest mammals are orangutans that dwell in forest trees. As opposed to habits of other primates they tend to spend more time on trees as opposed to that on the ground. The tools that they use are highly advanced in many ways and they also build tree nests to sleep within, and sticks to probe honey (Jaeggi, Adrian, et al). These species are found in Borneo and Sumatra rainforests. Their hair color is reddish brown as opposed to the color that gorillas and chimpanzees have. They live for over 30 years (Jaeggi, Adrian, et al). They are the most intelligent primates and tend to use sophisticated tools when they set up sleeping nests. They can be helpful when researching about learning disabilities. The species has also been critically endangered, and there has been a decline in their range due to human activities. Orangutans live in old secondary and primary forests, and they can also be found in lowland or mountainous swampy areas (Jaeggi, Adrian, et al). They usually spend the entire day resting, travelling, and feeding.
As many as 25% of the medicines that are widely used today originate from rainforests. However, only 1% of all the forest area on planet earth has been studied to find medicinal properties. It is imperative to note that rainforests tend to cover only 6% of the earth’s surface, yet rainforests are home to at least half known species. 2% of these rainforests are damaged every year. 7000 compounds have already been discovered and derived from plants alone. The US national cancer institute discovered that there were potential anti-cancer compounds present in the forests.
These extracts could be widely used as drugs and for illnesses that can range from headaches, chronic illness, and as pain relievers without side effects (Lense). Many modern medications can be supported with a backdrop of discovery in forests. For example, Quinine is a cure of malaria, which is an alkaloid that is extracted from the cinchona bark that is prevalent in Africa and Latin America. As far as the deadly barks if curare lianas are considered, they were used by indigenous people to isolate alkaloid tubocurarine that were used to treat multiple sclerosis. These extracts also tend to aid in treating illnesses such as muscular disabilities and aiding in Parkinson’s disease. In Africa, rosy periwinkle helps in showing tumor suppressing agents. There are chances for there being 99% remission in cases where lymphocytic leukemia is considered (Golden, Christopher, et al.) Additionally, there are many compounds and ingredients that are used as active ingredients when birth pills are concerned. Cortisone and Diosgenin are found in forests within Mexico and elsewhere.
There are many other chemical structures that are seen as part of forest organisms. Today, scientists and researchers aim to synthesize these drug compounds chemically. Examples cane be seen as far as aspirin’s blueprint is concerned and concerning extracts from willow trees in rainforests. Neostigmine is also a chemically driven substance that is used to treat an eye illness called glaucoma; it is found in West Africa, and gives a blueprint for insecticides. As many of 90% prescription drugs consist of extracts from higher plants. Essentially, rainforests can provide solid information for research purposes. Tropical rainforests are the hub to contraceptives for both men and women. One can see that there has been an exponential level of growth as far as collecting reliable information about contraceptive methods is concerned. There have been as many as 4000 plant types and species that show that there are different contraceptive possibilities. These rainforests are home to many safe pesticides for farmers as well. Species of potatoes also allow there to be trap and kill insects with peculiar substances alone. These are natural defence mechanisms that are present in rainforests.
The UK is also home to the ancient woodland that seemed to have existed before the 1600s in England, Northern Ireland, and Wales. Before this time, referring to the new woodland was highly uncommon and wood that was present before the 1600s was likely to have developed naturally (Lense). As far as ancient woods were concerned, shrubs and trees were cut down as part of managing forests. Many ancient woodlands tend to have protection, and these are considered to be sites of special interest. The national planning policy framework was published in 2012 and stated policy documents that relate to ancient woodland development. The concept, in itself, of ancient woodland, was developed in the 1980s when ecologist Rackham published the book named “Ancient Woodland Thomas, et al.)” Many species such as Yellow Rattle, Primrose, Wood anemone, and bluebells are common in these ancient woodland sites. Ancient woods tend to be well defined and are easily defined and surrounded (Alverson, Don & Walter). There are many small-scale forests such as the Bedgebury forest that is 2600 acres in area, and is located in Kent, near Filmwell. Such forests are used for pleasures purposes such as biking, cycling, riding, and adventure playing.
Other interesting facts relate to Pando that is a tree that has one of the largest clonal colony that shares the same watering system. It is determined by a single living organism that seems to have the same genetic marker. The plant weighs 6600 tons and is the heaviest known organism in this case (DeWoody, Jennifer, et al.) Pando is located 1 mile from Fish Lake, near the Utah State route number 25. Pando was discovered in 1968 and was continued to be studied in the 1970s. It has been described as a single organism and there have been many methods used to reach to conclusions about it. The clonal colony tends to spread to 43 hectares, and there are over 40,000 trunks which die one by one, being replaced by new routes (DeWoody, Jennifer, et al.).
There is still a lot of new information that is being discovered with the passage of time. For example, Hurricane Katrina also revealed an underwater forest that was off the Alabama coast that is 50,000 years old (Pretzsch). China has also made an effort as far as forests are concerned as it planted one of the biggest unnatural forests in the world. The United States has made an effort in planting trees as there has been a great level of harvest since the mid-1900s (Pretzsch). However, rainforests are highly poor as far as nutrients and minerals are concerned as these are key to nourishing forests and cycling.
Essentially, forests have had a great level of influence on terrestrial life as they continue to give feedbacks on the climate and one’s physical environment. There have been many studies that look at the way that changes tend to impact the resistance of forests. Forest dynamics are of great interest as they explain the specifics and mathematics of remodelling.