What sections of the Donation of Constantine give advantages to the Pope? (Please give at least two examples, as sentences from the text)
The following sections of the Donation of Constantine give advantages to the Pope:
- “And we ordain and decree that he shall have the supremacy as well over the four chief seats Antioch, Alexandria, Constantinople* and Jerusalem, as also over all the churches of God in the -whole world.”
- “And, to the extent of our earthly imperial power, we decree that his holy Roman church shall be honored with veneration; and that, more than our empire and earthly throne, the most sacred seat of St. Peter shall be gloriously exalted; we giving to it the imperial power, and dignity of glory, and vigor and honor” (Internet History Sourcebooks Project).
Please find at least two quotations in Einhard’s Life of Charlemagne that provide evidence of bias.
- He puts a positive tone on his flaws: “although his neck was thick and somewhat short, and his belly rather prominent; but the symmetry of the rest of his body concealed these defects.”
- He justified the relentless war against the Saxons: “But the King did not suffer his high purpose and steadfastness – firm alike in good and evil fortune – to be wearied by any fickleness on their part, or to be turned from the task that he had undertaken, on the contrary, he never allowed their faithless behavior to go unpunished, but either took the field against them in person or sent his counts with an army to wreak vengeance and exact righteous satisfaction” (Internet History Sourcebooks).
How would you describe Einhard’s bias where Charlemagne is concerned?
Einhards’s bias stems from the fact that he considered Charlemagne his “lord and foster-father”. He had known him since childhood as he states: “the care that King Charles bestowed upon me in my childhood, and my constant friendship with himself and his children after I took up my abode at court. In this way, he strongly endeared me to himself and made me greatly his debtor as well in death as in life” (Internet History Sourcebooks).
What might have been Pope Leo III’s motive for crowning Charlemagne as “Emperor of the Romans”?
The motive of Pope Leo III to crown Charlemange was to acknowledge his power and reinforce his relationship with the church by authorizing the papacy and the church over the Roman empire. He also set a precedent for the pope to select a secular emperor (Emily Tai).
Based upon what we have reviewed in this module, what evidence is there in the sources for Charlemagne’s career that Charlemagne wanted to become an Emperor?
The art and architecture are evidence of Charlemagne’s desire to become Emporer. The similarities between San Vitale Revenna and Charlemange’s Palatine Chapel can be viewed as evidence as both have octagonal plans. The ruins of Charlemagne’s palace at Aachen to the Blanchard Knight Palace where the Byzantine emperors resided. The evidence can be found in art i.e., a Mosaic of the coronation of Charlemagne and another at Santa Maria Maggiore. He also issued laws that lead him to be named an Emperor and ensured that he had the support of his lord. He also minted a coin that shows him as a Roman Emperor (Emily Tai).
Based on what we have reviewed in this module, what evidence is there in the sources for Charlemagne’s career that he might not have wanted Pope Leo III to crown him Emperor?
Charlemagne did not want Pope Leo III to crown him as it gave the Pope the power to be a substitute for the emperor in the Western part of the empire. Charlemagne objected to the pope’s authority to name the emperor (Emily Tai).
If you had been one of Charlemagne’s advisors, are there any policies you would have advised him to approach differently? Please give at least one example and explain why or why not.
I would have advised him against the attack on Basque as ended in a defeat. Every one of the Franks was killed and looted. It was the greatest defeat of Charlamagne’s reign (Anne-Marie).
Anne-Marie. ‘How the Basques Defeated Europe’s Greatest Army and How History Erased Them’. HELLA BASQUE, 15 Aug. 2018, https://www.hellabasque.org/basque-victory/.
Emily Tai. History 111 Spring 2022 Merovingians and Carolingians with Narration. 2022. YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vVOFgcsi4q4.
Internet History Sourcebooks. https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/basis/einhard.asp#Saxon%20War. Accessed 4 Mar. 2022.
Internet History Sourcebooks Project. https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/source/donatconst.asp. Accessed 4 Mar. 2022.