Theories of motivation analyze factors that influence motivation. To a large extent, their subject is focused on the analysis of needs and their impact on motivation. These theories describe the structure of needs, their content, and how these needs are related to the motivation of a person to work. In these theories, an attempt is made to understand what drives a person to activity. The most famous theories of the motivation of this group are the theory of the hierarchy of needs of A. Maslow, the theory of ERG (needs of the existence of growth and connections), developed by K. Alderfer, the theory of D. McClelland’s acquired needs, the theory of two factors F. Herzberg, Vroom, the Porter-Lawler model.
Maslow’s theory of motivation of needs
The concept of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs includes the following basic ideas and motivations:
- a person constantly feels some needs;
- a person experiences a certain set of strongly expressed needs that can be combined into specific groups;
- groups of needs are hierarchically arranged in relation to each other;
- needs, if they are not satisfied, prompt the person to act; satisfied needs do not motivate people;
- if one need is satisfied, then its place is taken by another unmet need;
- usually, a person feels several different needs simultaneously, interacting with each other in a complex way;
- needs that are closer to the base of the “pyramid” require paramount satisfaction; needs of a higher level are beginning to act actively on a person after the needs of a lower level are basically satisfied;
higher-level needs can be met in more ways than lower-level needs.
In the book “Towards the Psychology of Being” Maslow later added a list of higher needs, which he defined as needs of growth (being-values). However, Maslow notes that they are difficult to describe since they are all interconnected and can not be completely separated from each other. Therefore, defining one of them, one must turn to the other. The list of existential values, according to Maslow, includes integrity, perfection, completeness, justice, vitality, richness of manifestations, simplicity, beauty, good, individual identity, truth, ease, the propensity to play, honesty, and self-sufficiency. According to Maslow, being values are often a powerful motive of human activity and are part of the structure of personal growth.
Theory of the ERG Alderfera
Just like Maslow, Clayton Alderfer, in his theory, proceeds from the fact that human needs can be combined into separate groups. But he believes that there are three groups of needs: 1) the needs of existence, 2) communication needs, 3) growth needs.
The groups of needs in this theory are quite clearly correlated with the groups of needs of the Maslow theory.
The needs of existence, as it were, include two groups of needs of the Maslow pyramid – security needs, with the exception of group security and physiological needs. The communication needs group clearly corresponds to the group of needs for belonging and involvement.
The need for communication, according to Alderfer, reflects the social nature of man, his desire to be a member of the family, to have colleagues, friends, enemies, bosses and subordinates. Therefore, a part of the recognition and self-assertion needs of the Maslow pyramid can also be attributed to this group, which relates to the person’s desire to occupy a certain position in the world around him, as well as that part of the security needs of the Maslow pyramid, which are related to group security. Growth needs are similar to the needs of self-expression of the Maslow pyramid and also include those needs of the recognition and self-assertion group that are associated with the desire to develop confidence, to self-improvement, etc. These three groups of needs, as well as in the Maslow concept, are hierarchical. However, between Maslow’s and Alderfer’s theories, there is one fundamental difference: if Maslow believes that there is a movement from the need to demand mainly from the bottom up to the lowest needs, then, according to Alderfer, the movement occurs both ways – upwards if the need is not satisfied lower level, and down if the need for a higher level is not satisfied; In the event of dissatisfaction with the needs of the top level, the degree of action of the lower level needs to be increased, which switches the attention of the person to this level.
In accordance with Alderfer’s theory, the hierarchy of needs reflects the ascent from more specific needs to less concrete ones, and each time the need is not satisfied, a switch to a simpler need occurs. The process of moving up the levels of needs Alderfer calls the process of satisfying the needs, and the process of the downward movement is called the process of frustration. The presence of two directions of movement in meeting the needs opens up additional opportunities to motivate a person. The theory of Alderfer’s needs for “young” does not have sufficient empirical evidence of its correctness. However, knowledge of this theory is useful for management practices since it opens up for managers the prospect of finding effective forms of motivation that correspond to a lower level of needs if it is not possible to create conditions for satisfying the needs of a higher level.
The theory of McClelland’s acquired needs
The theory of McClelland’s acquired needs determines the motivation of a person for activity and is associated with the study and description of the influence of participation and the need for power. According to McClelland, the needs of the lower levels (vital) in the modern world are, as a rule, already satisfied. Therefore, attention should be paid to the satisfaction of the higher human needs. These needs, if they are sufficiently clearly manifested in a person, have a marked effect on his behavior, forcing efforts and taking actions that must lead to the satisfaction of these needs. At the same time, McClelland considers these needs as acquired under the influence of life circumstances, experience and training.
The need for achievement is manifested in the striving of a person to achieve the goals that are before him more effectively than he did before. A person with a high level of achievement needs prefers to set himself an objective and usually chooses moderately complex goals and tasks based on what he can achieve and what he can do. Such people like to make decisions and be responsible for them; they are obsessed with those tasks that they solve and take on personal responsibility.
On the basis of the studies, McClelland came to the conclusion that this need can characterize not only individuals but also individual societies. Those societies where the need for achievement is high, usually have a developed economy. On the contrary, in societies characterized by weak demand for achievement, the economy develops at a low rate or does not develop at all.
The need for the participation is manifested in the desire to have friendly relations with others. People with a high need for complicity try to establish and maintain a good relationships, get approval and support from others, are concerned about what others think of them. It is very important for them to have the fact that they are needed by someone.
The need to rule, like the two previous ones is acquired develops on the basis of training and life experience and consists in the fact that a person seeks to control the resources and processes taking place in his environment. The main thrust of this need is the desire to control the actions of others, influence their behavior, and to take responsibility for their actions and behavior. The need to rule has two poles: first, the desire to have as much power as possible, to control everything and everyone; secondly, the desire to completely abandon any claims to power, the desire to avoid such situations and actions that are connected with the need to perform power function.
The needs for achievement, complicity, and domination in the McClelland theory do not exclude each other and are not hierarchical, like the Maslow concepts and the Alderfer theory. Moreover, the manifestation of the influence of these needs on human behavior depends on their mutual influence. For example, if an individual is in a leadership position and has a high need for domination, then in order to successfully carry out managerial activities in accordance with the desire to satisfy this need, it is desirable that the need for complicity be expressed relatively weakly. On the negative, from the point of view of the performance of the manager of his work, the combination of a strong need for achievement and a strong need for power can also result in influence since the first need will always guide the government to achieve the manager’s personal interests. Apparently, it is impossible to draw unequivocal conclusions about the direction in which the three named needs affect each other. However, it is quite obvious that one must take into account their mutual influence in analyzing the motivation and behavior of a person and developing methods for managing the process of formation and satisfaction of needs.
The theory of two factors Herzberg
The theory of the two factors of Herzberg is that all needs are divided into hygienic factors and motivations. The presence of hygiene factors only does not allow the development of dissatisfaction with the conditions of life (work, place of residence, etc.). Motivations that roughly correspond to the higher-level needs described by Maslow and McClelland are actively influencing human behavior.
The expectation theory of Vroom
Vroom’s expectations theory is based on the proposition that the existence of an active need is not the only necessary condition for motivating a person to achieve a certain goal. One should also hope that the type of behavior chosen by him will really lead to satisfaction or acquisition of the desired, “… workers will be able to achieve the level of performance required to receive a valuable reward (the value for each person is only his, that is, value – praise, work that likes, position in society, the satisfaction of the need for self-expression), if the level of authority delegated to them, their professional skills are sufficient to fulfill the task and “, – said V. Vroom.
The Porter-Lawler model
Leiman Porter and Edward Lauler developed a complex procedural theory of motivation, including elements of the theory of expectation and the theory of justice. In their model, there are five variables: the effort expended, the perception, the results obtained, the reward, and the degree of satisfaction.
According to the Porter-Lauler model, the achieved results of activities depend on the efforts, abilities, and characteristics of the individual, as well as on the awareness of his role. The level of effort is determined by the value of the reward and the degree of confidence that this level of effort will indeed entail a certain level of remuneration. Moreover, in this theory, a correspondence is established between reward and results, i.e., a person satisfies his needs by rewarding for the results achieved. Thus, productive work gives satisfaction. Porter and Lawler believe that a sense of accomplishment leads to satisfaction and contributes to increased effectiveness, which means that high productivity is the cause of complete satisfaction and not a consequence of it.
Hedonic motivational theory
The hedonic motivational theory believes that a person strives to maximize pleasure, pleasure and minimize displeasure, discomfort, pain, and suffering. One of the developers of this theory is the American psychologist P. Young. He believes that pleasure is the main factor that determines the activity, direction, and organization of behavior of employees. In Young’s theory, behavior is determined by emotion following behavior. If this emotion is positive, the action repeats; if – the negative, stalled. Supporters of the hedonic theory believe that emotional sensations are perceived as pleasure only up to a certain level. Then comes to satiety, and this same sensation is perceived as displeasure.
Recently, the hedonic theory has been called “two-dimensional” in connection with the separation of two significant factors: the level of stimulation; hedonic tone, which has to do with subjective pleasure.
Psychoanalytic motivational theory
The psychoanalytic motivational theory was created and developed by Austrian psychiatrist Sigmund Freud. It is an example of a psychodynamic approach to the study of human behavior. Theory of Freud is based on the recognition of the existence of certain psychological forces that shape human behavior and are not always recognized by them. This can be interpreted as a response to the actions of various stimuli. Freud argued that the driving forces of human behavior are instincts:
- Eros – the instinct of life;
- Thanatos – the instinct of aggression, destruction, death.
- Instinct, according to Freud, has four basic parameters – the source, the goal, the object and the stimulus.
- Psychoanalytic theory views man as a unity of three structural components:
- “Ego” (I) is the consciousness of self, personal certainty;
- “Id” (Ono) – a reservoir of instincts and impulses;
- “Superego” – the moral aspects of human behavior, the surrounding personality – the unconscious.
Theory of drives
The theory of drives (drives) is considered a kind of behaviorist model S – R , where S is the stimulus, R is the reaction. The creator of the motivational drive theory is the American psychologist Carl Hull. According to this theory, a person tends to independently maintain his inner state; any change in the inner world of the person leads to a certain reaction. First of all, a person tries to nullify any changes. Elements of neutralization are drives (drives). The new attempts that follow after the reaction and the reinforcing forces of this reaction are called reinforcements. The behavior reinforced by something is firmly fixed in the psyche of the worker. In organizations of countries with developed market economies, this system is used in the process of stimulating workers to work activity through monetary compensation and various incentives. However, in this case, the mindset of the employee creates a spirit of expectation of reward: if several times to reinforce not too productive work of the employee, he gets used and does not think of labor without additional remuneration.
Theory of conditioned reflexes
The theory of conditioned reflexes was developed by the great Russian scientist IP Pavlov. The basis of his theory is the body’s response to external stimuli-conditioned and unconditioned reflexes, recognized as the foundation of motivation. Pavlov devoted special attention to conditioned reflexes. The stereotype of thinking and behavior serves as a psycho-physiological basis for the installation, which is the central component of the individual’s motivational system.
Theories of “X” and “Y” McGregor
Douglas MacGregor, a scientist, known for his work in the field of leadership, described the preconditions of an authoritarian leader in relation to workers with the theory “X.”
The views of a democratic leader about workers differ from those of an authoritarian leader. MacGregor called them the “Y” theory.
These theories create very different guidelines for the implementation of motor function. They appeal to different categories of human needs and motivations.
As you can see, with different approaches to the issue of motivation, all the authors converge in water: the motive is the cause, the motivator of human activity. In connection with the fact that each person’s motives are individual, due to the peculiarities of his personality, the established system of value orientations, the social environment, emerging situations, etc., then the ways of satisfying the needs are different. The motivational sphere is dynamic and depends on many circumstances. But some of the motives are relatively stable and, subordinating the other motives, become, as it were, the core of the whole sphere.
Differences in the actions of different people in the same conditions in achieving the same goals are explained by the fact that people differ in the degree of energy and perseverance, one for a variety of situations respond with a variety of actions, while others in the same situations act in a monotonous way.
At the heart of any activity is the motive that motivates the person, but not always the activity can fully satisfy the motive. In this case, the person, having completed one activity, turns to the other. If the activity is long, then the motive in its process can change. So, good pencils, and colors induce the desire to paint them. However, after a while, this activity can bore the draftsman. Sometimes, on the contrary, while preserving the motive, the activity can be changed. For example, after being carried away first by drawing with watercolors, the person then starts working with oil. Between the development of the motive and the development of the activity, “mismatches” often arise: the development of motives may outrun the formation of activity, or may lag behind it, which affects the result of the activity.
Motivation determines the choice between various possible actions, regulating, guiding the effect on the achievement of specific target-specific motives and supporting this trend. In short, motivation explains the purposefulness of the action.
Motivation is not a single process, evenly from beginning to end, pervading behavior. It consists of heterogeneous processes that regulate behavior, primarily before and after the action. So, in the beginning, there is a process of weighing the possible outcomes of action and evaluating their consequences. Despite the fact that the activity is motivated, i.е. is aimed at achieving the goal of the motive; it should not be confused with motivation. The activity consists of such components as skills, skills, and knowledge. The motivation depends on how and in what direction will be used different functional abilities. Motivation explains the choice between various possible actions, different perceptions, and possible ways of thinking, as well as the intensity and perseverance in the implementation of the chosen action and the achievement of its results.
The concept of the direction of the individual and the motivation of activity. The basic forms of orientation: are an attraction, desire, aspiration, interests, ideals, and beliefs. The concept of motive. The problem of motivation of human activities. The concept of the need. Purpose of the activity. The main characteristics of the human motivational sphere: are breadth, flexibility, and hierarchy.
Psychological theories of motivation. The problem of motivation in the works of ancient philosophers. Irrationalism. Automaton theory. The role of Charles Darwin’s evolutionary theory in the development of the problem of motivating human behavior. Theories of instincts. The theory of the biological needs of man. A behavioral theory of motivation and the theory of higher nervous activity. Classification of human needs but A. Maslow. Motivational concepts of the second half of XX century. The theory of the activity origin of the motivational sphere of man AN Leontyev.
Basic regularities of the development of the motivational sphere. Mechanisms of motivation development according to AN Leontiev. The main stages in the formation of the motivational sphere in children. Features of the first interests of children. Features of the formation of the motivational sphere in preschool and school age. The role of the game in the formation of the motivational sphere.
Motivated behavior as a characteristic of personality. The motivation of achievement and avoidance.The level of claims and self-esteem. Features of the manifestations of the motives of affiliation and power. The motive of rejection. Prosocial behavior. Aggression and motive of aggression. Types of aggressive actions by A. Bandura. Tendencies to aggression and the tendency to suppress aggression.
22.1. The concept of personal orientation and motivation
In domestic psychology, there are various approaches to the study of personality. However, despite the differences in the interpretation of the personality, in all approaches, the direction is highlighted as its leading characteristic. There are different definitions of this concept, for example, the “dynamic tendency” (SL Rubinshtein), the “sense-forming motive” (AN Leontiev), the “dominant attitude” (VN Myasischev), “the main life orientation” (B G. Ananiev), “the dynamic organization of the essential forces of man” (AS Prangishvili).
Most often in the scientific literature, under the direction of understanding a set of sustainable motives that guide the activities of the individual and are relatively independent of the current situation.
It should be noted that the orientation of the individual is always socially conditioned and formed in the process of education. Directivity are attitudes that have become personality traits and manifest themselves in such forms as attraction, desire, aspiration, interest, inclination, ideal, worldview, and conviction. And at the basis of all forms of personality orientation are the motives of activity.
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Briefly describe each of the selected forms of direction in the order of their hierarchy. First of all, it is necessary to stop attraction. It is considered that attraction is the most primitive, in its essence, biological form of direction. From the psychological point of view, it is a mental state expressing an undifferentiated, unconscious, or insufficiently realized need. As a rule, attraction is a transitory phenomenon because the need presented in it either fades away or is realized, becoming a desire.
Desire is a conscious need and attraction to something quite certain. It should be noted that desire, being sufficiently conscious, has an incentive power. It aggravates the awareness of the goal of the future action and the construction of its plan. This form of orientation is characterized by awareness not only of its needs but also of possible ways to meet them.
The next form of direction is an aspiration. The aspiration arises when the will component is included in the desired structure. Therefore, aspiration is often seen as a well-defined motivation for action.
Most clearly characterize the direction of the individual’s interests. Interest – this is a specific form of manifestation of cognitive needs, ensuring the orientation of the individual to the realization of the goals of the activity and thereby contributing to the orientation of the individual in the surrounding reality. Subjectively, interest is found in the emotional tone accompanying the process of cognition or attention to a particular object. One of the most significant characteristics of interest is that, while satisfying it, it does not fade, but, on the contrary, causes new interests corresponding to a higher level of cognitive activity.
Interests are the most important motivating force for knowing the surrounding reality. Distinguish the immediate interest caused by the attractiveness of the object, and the indirect interest in the object as a means of achieving the objectives of the activity. An indirect characteristic of the awareness of needs reflected in the interests is the sustainability of interests, which is expressed in the duration of their preservation and in their intensity. It should also be emphasized that the breadth and content of interests can serve as one of the most striking characteristics of a person.
Interest in the dynamics of its development can turn into an addiction. This happens when the will component is included in the interest. Addiction characterizes the orientation of the individual to a particular activity. The basis of propensity is the deep, steady need of the individual in a particular activity, that is, with. interest in a particular type of activity. As a basis for addiction, there may also be a desire to improve the skills and skills associated with this need. It is generally believed that the emerging propensity can be considered as a prerequisite for the development of certain abilities.
The next form of manifestation of the person’s orientation is an ideal. The ideal is a concrete objective goal of the individual’s propensity, which is specified in the image or idea, that is, what he strives for and orientates on. Ideals of the person
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can act as one of the most significant characteristics of a person’s world outlook, that is, his system of views on the objective world, on the place of a person in him, on the attitude of a person to the surrounding reality, and to himself. The worldview reflects not only ideals but also the value orientations of people, their principles of cognition and activity, and their beliefs.
Persuasion – the highest form of orientation – is a system of motives for the individual which motivates her to act in accordance with her views, principles, and worldview. At the heart of beliefs lie the conscious needs that motivate the person to act and shape her motivation for action.
Since we have come to the problem of motivation, it should be noted that there are two functionally interconnected aspects in the behavior of a person: the motivational and regulative. The mental processes and states we examined earlier provide basically a regulation of behavior. As for his stimulation, or motivations that ensure the activation and direction of behavior, they are related to motives and motivation.
Motive – this motivation for activities related to the satisfaction of the needs of the subject. The motive is also often understood as the reason underlying the choice of actions and actions, the totality of external and internal conditions that cause the subject’s activity.
The term “motivation” is a broader concept than the term “motive.” The word “motivation” is used in modern psychology in two senses: as a system of factors that determine behavior (this includes, in particular, needs, motives, goals, intentions, aspirations, etc.) and as a characteristic of the process that stimulates and supports the behavioral activity at a certain level. Most often in the scientific literature, motivation is viewed as a set of psychological reasons explaining a person’s behavior, its beginning, direction and activity.
The question of motivation of activity arises every time when it is necessary to explain the causes of human actions. And any form of behavior can be explained both by internal and external causes. In the first case, the psychological properties of the subject of behavior are the starting and final points of explanation, and in the second – the external conditions and circumstances of his activities. In the first case, they talk about motives, needs, goals, intentions, desires, interests, etc., and in the second – about the incentives coming from the current situation. Sometimes, all the psychological factors that, from within, the person determine his behavior are called personal dispositions. Then, respectively, talk about dispositional and situational motivations as analogs of internal and external determinants of behavior.
Internal (dispositional) and external (situational) motivations are interrelated. Dispositions can be actualized under the influence of a certain situation, and the activation of certain dispositions (motives, needs) leads to a change in the subject’s perception of the situation. In this case, his attention becomes selective, and the subject perceives and assesses the situation in a biased way, proceeding from actual interests and needs. Therefore, any human action is considered as two deterministic: dispositional and situational.
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Considering the problem of the orientation of the individual, we can not but consider a special group of people who are called “antisocial personalities”. Such people have practically no sense of responsibility, morality or interest in others. Their behavior almost completely determines their own needs. In other words, they have no conscience. If an ordinary person already at an early age imagines that the behavior has certain limitations and that sometimes it is necessary to give up pleasure for the sake of the interests of other people, antisocial personalities rarely take into account anyone’s desires, except their own. They behave impulsively, strive for immediate satisfaction of their needs and do not tolerate frustration.
It should be noted that the term “antisocial personality” does not apply to most people who commit antisocial actions. Asocial behavior has a number of reasons, including membership in a criminal group or criminal subculture, the need for attention and elevated status, loss of contact with reality, and inability to control impulses. Most adolescent criminals and adult criminals have a certain interest in other people (family or gang members) and a certain moral code (for example, not betraying a friend). In contrast, an antisocial personality does not harbor any feelings for anyone but himself and does not feel guilty or remorse, no matter how much suffering she has caused people.
Other characteristics of an antisocial personality (sociopath) include the extraordinary ease of lying, the need to excite oneself or
lead to excitement and inability to change their behavior as a result of punishment. Such individuals are often perceived as attractive, intelligent, charming people who easily come into contact with other people. Their competent and sincere appearance allows them to get a promising job, but they have little chance of holding onto it. Restlessness and impulsiveness soon lead them to a failure that reveals their true nature; they save their debts, abandon their families, or commit crimes. Being caught, they are so convincingly talking about their repentance that they often cancel the punishment. But the antisocial personality rarely lives in accordance with its statements; these people have nothing to do with their deeds and feelings.
Two characteristics of an antisocial personality are considered particularly indicative; first, the lack of compassion and interest in others and, secondly, the lack of a sense of shame or guilt, an inability to repent of their actions, no matter how reprehensible they were.
Modern researchers distinguish three groups of factors that contribute to the development of an antisocial personality: biological determinants, the characteristics of the relationship between parents and the child, and the style of thinking.
The conducted researches testify to the genetic causes of antisocial behavior, especially criminal behavior. Thus, for identical twins, the magnitude of concordance for criminal behavior is twice as high as that of related ones, from which it is clear that this behavior is partially inherited. The study of adoption shows that the crimes of adopted boys are similar to the crimes of their biological fathers.
one-minute behavior of a person should be viewed not as a reaction to certain internal or external stimuli but as a result of the continuous interaction of his dispositions with the situation. Thus, human motivation can be represented as a cyclic process of continuous mutual influence and transformation, in which the subject of the action and the situation mutually influence each other and the result of which is actually observed behavior. From this point of view, motivation is a process of continuous choice and decision-making based on weighing behavioral alternatives.
In turn, the motive, unlike motivation, is that which belongs to the subject of behavior itself, is his stable personal property,
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In addition, it is noted that antisocial individuals have low excitability because of what they are using impulsive and dangerous actions to seek stimulation that causes the corresponding sensations.
Some researchers say that the quality of parental care received by a child with a tendency to hyperactivity and behavioral disorders determines to a large extent whether a full-scale antisocial personality will develop from it or not. One of the best indicators of violations in the behavior of children is the level of parental supervision: children who often remain unattended or who are poorly looked after for a long time often develop a scheme of criminal behavior. A variable close to this is parental indifference; Children whose parents do not participate in their daily lives often become antisocial.
Biological and family factors that contribute to behavioral disorders often coincide. Children with behavioral disorders often have neuropsychological problems, which result from the mother’s drug use, poor intrauterine nutrition, toxic effects before and after birth, ill-treatment, complications during childbirth, and low birth weight. Such children are more often irritable, impulsive, clumsy, hyperactive, inattentive, and slower to learn the material than their peers. This makes it difficult for parents to care for them, and they are at increased risk of mistreatment and neglect by their parents. In turn, the parents of these children are most likely to have psychological problems themselves, contributing to the inefficient or gross, untenable performance of their parental functions. Therefore, in addition to having a biological predisposition to antisocial behavior, these children experience the treatment of parents, which encourages such behavior.
The third group of factors conditioning the development of an antisocial personality is the individual psychological characteristics of children. In children with behavioral disorders, the processing of information about social interactions occurs in such a way that they develop aggressive reactions to these interactions. They expect that other children will be aggressive towards them and interpret their actions based on this assumption instead of relying on signs of a really encountered situation. In addition, children with behavioral disabilities tend to consider any negative impact of peers directed at them not accidental but intentional. Deciding what action to take in response to the perceived provocation of a peer, a child with disrupted behavior will make a choice from a very limited set of reactions, usually involving aggression. If such a child is forced to choose something other than aggression, he commits chaotic and ineffective actions and considers everything, except aggression, to be useless and unattractive.
Children who imagine social interaction in this way tend to show aggressive behavior towards others. They can expect a payment: other children beat them, parents and teachers punish them, and they are perceived by others negatively. These responses, in turn, strengthen their confidence that the world is against them and make them misinterpret the future actions of others. This can create a vicious circle of interactions that supports and inspires aggressive and antisocial behavior of the child.
Nutri inducing to perform certain actions. Motives can be conscious or unconscious. The main role in shaping the direction of the person belongs to conscious motives. It should be noted that the motives themselves are formed from the needs of the individual. A need is called a state of human need in certain conditions of life and activity or material objects. The need, like any state of the individual, is always associated with the presence of a person’s sense of satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The needs are for all living beings, and this living nature differs from the inanimate. Another of its differences, also related to needs, is the selectivity of the response of the living thing to what constitutes the subject of needs,
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that is, something that the body at a given time is not enough. The need activates the body, stimulates its behavior, aimed at finding what is required.
The quantity and quality of needs that living beings have depend on the level of their organization, on the image and conditions of life, on the place occupied by the corresponding organism on the evolutionary ladder. The least demand for plants that need only in certain biochemical and physical conditions of existence. Most of all, the diverse needs of a person who, in addition to physical and organic needs, also has spiritual and social needs. Social needs are expressed in the desire of a person to live in a society, to interact with other people.
The main characteristics of human needs are strength, the frequency of occurrence, and the way of satisfaction. An additional but very significant characteristic, especially when it comes to the individual, is the objective content of the need, that is, the totality of those objects of material and spiritual culture with which the given need can be satisfied.
The motivating factor is the goal. The goal is called the realized result, the attainment of which at the moment is directed activities related to the activity that meets the actualized need. If the whole sphere of conscious behavior is presented in the form of a unique arena in which a colorful and multifaceted performance of human life unfolds and to admit that the most brightly at the given moment it illuminates the place that should attract the greatest attention of the viewer (the subject itself), then this is the goal. Psychologically, the goal is the motivational and motivational content of consciousness, which is perceived by man as the immediate and immediate expected result of his activity.
The goal is the main object of attention, which takes a certain amount of short-term and operational memory; with it are associated with the thinking process unfolding at a given moment of time and most of all possible emotional experiences.
It is customary to distinguish between the purpose of the activity and the goal of life. This is due to the fact that a person has to perform a variety of activities throughout his life, in each of which a specific goal is being realized. But the goal of any particular activity reveals only one of the aspects of the personality’s direction that manifests itself in this activity. The life goal acts as a generalizing factor of all private goals associated with individual activities. At the same time, the realization of each of the goals of activity is a partial realization of the overall life goal of the individual. With life goals, the level of personality achievement is linked. In the life goals of the individual, the expression of the “concept of one’s own future” is recognized. A person’s awareness of not only the goal but also the reality of its implementation is viewed as the prospect of the individual.
The state of frustration, or depression, characteristic of a person who realizes the impossibility of realizing a perspective, is called frustration. This condition occurs when a person on the way to achieving the goal is faced with really insurmountable obstacles, barriers or when they are perceived as such.
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The motivational sphere of a person, from the point of view of its development, can be assessed according to the following parameters: breadth, flexibility and Ivarhirizirovannost. Under the breadth of the motivational sphere is understood the qualitative variety of motivational factors – dispositions (motives), needs and goals. The more a person has various motives, needs and goals, the more developed is his motivational sphere.
The flexibility of the motivational sphere is expressed in the fact that more motivational incentives of a lower level can be used to satisfy motivational motives of a more general nature (higher level). For example, the motivational sphere of a person is more flexible, which, depending on the circumstances of satisfying the same motive, can use more diverse means than another person. For example, for a single individual, the need for knowledge can be met only through television, radio and cinema, and for another, various books, periodicals, and communication with people are also a means of satisfying it . In the latter, the motivational sphere, by definition, will be more flexible.
It should be noted that the breadth and flexibility characterize the motivational sphere of a person in different ways. Latitude is the diversity of the potential range of objects that can serve a given person as a means of meeting the actual need, and flexibility is the mobility of the links existing between different levels of the hierarchical organization of the motivational sphere: between motives and needs, motives and goals, needs and goals.
The next characteristic of the motivational sphere is the hierarchy of motives. Some motives and goals are stronger than others and arise more often; others are weaker and less frequent. The more differences in the strength and frequency of actualization of motivational formations of a certain level, the higher the hierarchization of the motivational sphere.
It should be noted that the problem of investigating motivation has always attracted the attention of researchers. Therefore, there are many different concepts and theories on the motives, motivation and direction of the individual. Let’s look at some of them in general terms.
22.2. Psychological theories of motivation
The problem of motivating human behavior has attracted the attention of scientists from time immemorial. Numerous theories of motivation began to appear in the works of ancient philosophers, and at present there are already several such theories. The point of view on the origin of human motivation in the process of the development of mankind and science has repeatedly changed. However, most scientific approaches have always been located between two philosophical currents: rationalism and irrationalism. According to the rationalist position, and she particularly clearly performed in the works of philosophers and theologians up to the middle of the XIX century, a person is a unique creature of special
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genus, which has nothing to do with animals. It was believed that only man is endowed with reason, thinking and consciousness, has the will and freedom to choose the action, and the motivational source of human behavior was perceived exclusively in the mind, consciousness and will of man.
Irrationalism as a doctrine mainly considered the behavior of animals. Supporters of this teaching proceeded from the statement that the behavior of an animal, unlike a human being, is not free, unreasonable, is controlled by dark, unconscious forces that have their origins in organic needs.Schematically, the history of the study of the problem of motivation is shown in Fig. 22.1. The scheme depicted on it was proposed by the American scientist D. Atkinson and partially modified by RS Nemov.
The first actually psychological theories of motivation are considered to have arisen in the HUP-HUP! c. theory of decision making, explaining the basis of human behavior rationally, and the theory of the automaton, explaining the behavior of the animal on an irrational basis. The first was related to the use of mathematical knowledge in the explanation of human behavior. She considered the problems of choosing a person in the economy. Subsequently, the main provisions of this theory were transferred to an understanding of human behavior in general.
The origin and development of the theory of the automaton were caused by the successes of mechanics in the 17th-18th centuries. One of the central points of this theory was the doctrine of the reflex. And within the framework of this theory the reflex was considered as a mechanical, or automatic, innate response of a living organism to external influences. The separate, independent existence of two motivational theories (one for man and another for animals) continued until the end of the 19th century.
Fig. 22.1. History of the study of the problem of motivation
(from: Nemov RS, 1998)
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In the second half of the XIX century. with the advent of the evolutionary theory of Charles Darwin, the prerequisites for revising some views on the mechanisms of human behavior arose.The theory developed by Darwin made it possible to overcome antagonisms that divided views on the nature of man and animals as two phenomena of reality incompatible in the anatomical, physiological and psychological aspects. Moreover, Darwin was one of the first who drew attention to the fact that humans and animals have many common needs and behaviors, in particular emotional-expressive expressions and instincts.
Under the influence of this theory in psychology, an intensive study of intelligent forms of behavior in animals (V. Kehler, E. Thorndike) and instincts in man (3. Freud, W. McDougall, IP Pavlov, etc.) began. In the course of these studies, the concept of needs has changed. If earlier researchers, as a rule, tried to connect needs with the needs of the organism and therefore used the concept of “need” most often to explain the behavior of animals, then in the process of transformation and development of scientific views this concept was used to explain human behavior. It should be noted that the use of the concept of “need” for a person has led to the expansion of this concept. Began to allocate not only biological, but also some social needs.However, the main feature of research on the motivation of human behavior at this stage was that unlike the previous stage, which contrasted the behavior of man and animal, these fundamental differences between man and animal were minimized. Man as the motivational factors began to attribute the same organic needs, which previously endowed only the animal.
One of the first manifestations of such an essentially biologic view of human behavior was the theories of the instincts of Freud and W. McDougall, proposed at the end of the 19th century. and received the greatest popularity in the early XX century. Trying to explain the social behavior of man by analogy with the behavior of animals, Freud and McDougall reduced all forms of human behavior to innate instincts. So, in Freud’s theory of such instincts there were three: the instinct of life, the instinct of death and the instinct of aggressiveness. McDougall proposed a set of ten instincts: the instinct of invention, the instinct of construction, the instinct of curiosity, the flight instinct, the instinct of herdness, the instinct of pugnacity, the reproductive (parent) instinct, the disgusting instinct, the instinct of self-abasement, the instinct of self-affirmation. In later works, McDougall added to the listed eight more instincts, mostly related to organic needs.
The developed theories of instincts still could not answer many questions and did not resolve a number of very significant problems. For example, how to prove the existence of these instincts in a person and to what extent can those instincts be reduced to or withdrawn from those forms of behavior that are acquired by a person in life under the influence of experience and social conditions? And also how, in these forms of behavior, is the actual instinctual and acquired as a result of learning divided?
Disputes around the theory of instincts could not give a scientifically substantiated answer to any of the questions posed. As a result, all the discussions resulted in the fact that
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the very concept of “instinct” as applied to man began to be used more rarely. There were new concepts for describing human behavior, such as need, reflex, attraction and others.
In the 20-ies. XX century. to replace the theory of instincts came the concept, in the framework of which all human behavior was explained by the presence of biological needs. In accordance with this concept, it was considered that humans and animals have general organic needs that have the same effect on behavior. Periodically arising organic needs cause the state of excitation and stress in the body, and the satisfaction of the need leads to a decrease in tension. In this concept of fundamental differences between the concepts of “instinct” and “need” was not, except that instincts are innate, and I can! to acquire and change during life, especially in humans.
It should be noted that the use of the concepts “instinct” and “need for this concept had one significant drawback: their use eliminated the need to take into account the explanation of human behavior are cognitive? psychological characteristics associated with consciousness and subjective states of the body. Therefore, these concepts were later replaced by the concept of attraction, or drive. And under the drive was understood the desire of the body for some final result, subjectively presented in the form of a certain goal, expectation or intention against the background of a corresponding emotional experience.
In addition to the theories of human biological needs, instincts and drives in the early XX century. there were two new directions. Their appearance was largely due to the discoveries of IP Pavlov. This behavioral (behaviorist) theory of motivation and the theory of higher nervous activity behavioral concept of motivation in its essence was a logical continuation of the ideas of the founder of behaviorism D. Watson. Representatives of this area, which received the greatest fame, are E. Tolman K. Hull and B. Skinner. All of them tried to explain the behavior within the initial scheme of behaviorism: “stimulus-reaction”.
Another theory – the theory of higher nervous activity – was developed;
IP Pavlov, and its development was continued by his students and followers, among whom were the following: NA Bernshtein – author of the theory of psychophysiological regulation of movements; PK Anokhin, who proposed a model of a functional system that describes and explains the dynamics of a behavioral act at a modern level; E. N. Sokolov, who discovered and studied the orienting reflex, which is of great importance for understanding psychophysiologically;
mechanisms of perception, attention, and motivation, and also proposed a model of the conceptual reflex arc.
One of the theories that emerged at the turn of the Х1Х-ХХ centuries. and continuing to be developed now is the theory of the organic needs of animals. It emerged and developed under the influence of previous irrationalist traditions in the understanding of animal behavior. Its modern representatives see their task in explaining the behavior of animals from the standpoint of physiology and biology.
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McDougall William (1871-1938) is an Anglo-American psychologist, the founder of “gormic psychology,” according to which the instinctive desire for a goal is inherently inherent in the nature of the living. MacDougall declared himself as an original thinker in 1908 when he published one of his most important works, “The Main Problems of Social Psychology,” where he formulated the basic principles of the social behavior of man. This work formed the basis of his “gormic psychology” as part of dynamic psychology, emphasizing the changes in mental processes and their energy basis.
The skill, in the opinion of McDougall, in itself is not the driving force of behavior and does not orient it. As the main driving force of human behavior, he considered irrational, instinctive motivations. At the heart of the behavior is the interest due to the innate instinctive drive, which only finds its manifestation in the skill and is served by some or other mechanisms of behavior. Every organic body is endowed with certain vital energy from birth, the reserves, and forms of distribution (discharge) which are rigidly predetermined by the repertoire of instincts. As soon as the primary impulses are determined in the form of motives directed at certain goals, they receive their expression in the corresponding bodily adaptations.
Initially, McDougall identified 12 types of instincts: flight (fear), aversion (aversion), curiosity (surprise), aggressiveness (anger), self-abasement, self-affirmation (inspiration), parental instinct (tenderness), the instinct for procreation, food instinct, herd instinct, the instinct of acquiring, the instinct of creation. In his opinion, the basic instincts are directly related to the corresponding emotions since emotions are the internal expression of instincts.
Concepts and theories of motivation, attributed only to man, began to appear in psychological science in the 30s. XX century. The first of these was the theory of motivation proposed by K. Levin. Following it was published the work of representatives of humanistic psychology-G. Murray, A. Maslow, G. Allport, K. Rogers, and others. Let us consider some of them.
The motivational concept of G. Murray was fairly widely known. In addition to the list of organic, or primary, needs identical to the basic instincts, Murray proposed a list of secondary (psychogenic) needs arising on the basis of instinct-like drives as a result of education and training. These are the needs of achieving success, affiliation, aggression, the need for independence, resistance, respect, humiliation, protection, domination, attracting attention, avoiding harmful influences, avoiding failures, patronage, order, and play. rejection, comprehension, sexual relations, help, and mutual understanding. Subsequently, in addition to these twenty needs, the author attributed to the man six more: acquisitions, rejections of charges, knowledge, creation, explanation, recognition, and thrift.
A.Maslow is another, even more famous, the concept of motivating human behavior. Most often, when one talks about this concept, they have in mind the existence of a hierarchy of human needs and their classification, proposed by Maslow. According to this concept, a person from birth consistently appears and accompanies his growing up seven classes of needs
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Chapter 22. The Directivity and Motives of Personal Activities • 523
(Figure 22.2): physiological (organic) needs, security needs, needs for belonging and love, needs for respect (reverence), cognitive needs, aesthetic needs, needs for self-actualization. Moreover, according to the author, on the basis of this motivational pyramid lie physiological needs, and higher needs, such as aesthetics and the need for self-actualization, form its top.
In the second half of the XX century. the theory of human needs was supplemented by a number of motivational concepts presented in the writings of D. McClelland, D. Atkinson, G. Heckhausen, G. Kelly, J. Rotter, and others. To a certain extent, they are close to each other and have a number of general provisions.
First, most of these theories denied the fundamental possibility of creating a single universal theory of motivation, equally successfully explaining both the behavior of animals and humans.
Secondly, it was stressed that the desire to relieve tension as the main motivational source of purposeful behavior at the human level does not work; in any case, is not for him the main motivational principle.
Thirdly, in most of these theories, it was argued that a person is not reactive but is initially active. Therefore, the principle of voltage reduction to explain human behavior is unacceptable, and the sources of its activity should be sought in itself, in its psychology.
Fourth, the data of the theory recognized, along with the role of the unconscious, the essential role of human consciousness in the formation of its behavior. Moreover, according to most authors, conscious regulation for man is the leading mechanism for the formation of behavior.
Fifthly, for most of the theories of this group, there was a tendency to introduce into scientific circulation specific concepts reflecting features of human motivation, for example, “social needs, motives” (D. McKellland, D. Atkinson, G. Heckhausen), “life goals “(K. Rogers, R. Mei),” cognitive factors “(J. Rotter, G. Kelly, and others).
Sixthly, the authors of the theories of this group were unanimous in the opinion that for the study of human motivation, methods of investigating the causes of behavior in animals are unacceptable. Therefore, they attempted to find special methods of studying motivation suitable only for humans.
In domestic psychology, attempts were also made to solve problems of human motivation. However, until the mid-1960s. psychological research was focused on the study of cognitive processes. The main scientific development of domestic psychologists in the field of motivation problems is the theory of the activity origin of the human motivational sphere, created by AN Leontiev.
With the psychological theory of Leontyev, you are already familiar. According to his conception, the human motivational sphere, like other psychological features, has its sources in practical activity. In particular, between the structure of activity and the structure of the human motivational sphere, there are relations of isomorphism, ie, mutual correspondence, and at the heart of the dynamic changes that occur with the motivational sphere of a person,
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lie in the development of the system of activities subject to objective social laws.
Thus, this concept explains the origin and dynamics of the motivational sphere of a person. It shows how the system of deactivities can change, how its hierarchy is transformed, how certain types of activities and operations arise and disappear, and what modifications occur with actions. In accordance with the laws of development of activities, it is possible to derive laws that describe changes in the motivational sphere of a person, the acquisition of new needs, motives, and goals for them.
All the theories examined have their own merits and at the same time, their shortcomings. Their main drawback is that they are able to explain only some of the phenomena of motivation, to answer only a small part of the questions arising in this field of psychological research. Therefore, the study of the motivational sphere of a person continues in our days.
22.3. Basic regularities of the development of the motivational sphere
In domestic psychology, the formation and development of the motivational sphere in a person is considered within the framework of the psychological theory of activity proposed by AN Leontiev. The question of the formation of new motives and the development of a motivational force is one of the most complexes and not fully studied. Leontiev described only one mechanism for the formation of motifs, which was called the mechanism of shifting the motive to the target (another version of the name of this mechanism is the mechanism of turning the target into a motive). The essence of this mechanism is that, in the course of the activity, the goal, to which, for certain reasons, man aspired, in due course, becomes itself an independent motive force, i.e., a motive.
The central point of this theory is that the motive because which we strive to achieve the goal is related to the satisfaction of certain needs. But over time, the goal that we have sought to achieve can turn into an urgent need. For example, often parents, in order to stimulate the child’s interest in reading books, promise him to buy some toy if he reads the book. However, in the process of reading, the child has an interest in the book itself, and gradually reading books can become one of his basic needs. This example explains the mechanism of development of the human motivational sphere by expanding the number of needs. The most significant is that the expansion of the number of needs, that is, the expansion of the list of what a person needs, occurs in the process of his activity, in the process of his contact with the environment.
Historically, in domestic psychology, the formation of the human motivational sphere in the process of its ontogeny is considered within the framework of the formation of human interests as the main reasons that induce it
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to development and activity. As you remember, interests reflect, above all, the cognitive needs of man. Therefore, in domestic psychology, the development of the motivational sphere is usually seen in unity with the overall development of the human psyche, especially its cognitive sphere.
Conducted scientific research has shown that the first manifestations of interest are observed in children already in the first year of life, as soon as the child begins to orientate in the surrounding world. At this stage of development, the child is most often interested in bright, colorful objects, unfamiliar things, and sounds produced by objects. The child not only enjoys himself, perceives all this, but also demands that he, again and again, show the object interested in him, again giving him to hear the sounds that aroused his interest. He cries and resents if he is deprived of the opportunity to continue to perceive what has aroused interest.
A characteristic feature of the first interests of the child is their extreme instability and chained to actual perception. The child is interested in what he perceives at the moment. He is angry and crying; if anything interested him has disappeared from the field of vision. Calm the child in these cases is not very difficult – just draw his attention to something else, as interest in what they perceived before goes out and is replaced by a new one.
As the motor activity develops, the child becomes more and more interested in the independent performance of actions, which he gradually masters. Already in the first year of life, the child discovers, for example, the tendency to repeatedly throw things on the floor that are in his hand – after throwing the taken thing, he demands that she be lifted and given to him, but then again throws it, again demands her return to herself, again throws, etc. Having mastered more complex actions, he also shows an interest in the repeated implementation of them and can, for example, invest a lot of things for another and take it out again.
With the development of speech and communication with others, as well as with the expansion of the range of subjects and activities with which the child acquaints, his cognitive interests are greatly expanded. A vivid expression of them are the most diverse questions asked by children to adults, beginning with the question: “What is this?” And ending with questions related to explaining what the child perceives: “Why does the cow have horns?”, “Why the moon does not fall to the ground? ” Why is the grass green? “,” Where does the milk go when we drink it? “,” Where does the wind come from? “” Why do birds sing? “- all these questions, and many similar ones, are keenly interested in the child, and at the age of three to five years, he so “falls asleep” by them an adult that this whole period of his life has justified Ivo is called the period of questions.
The end of pre-school and the beginning of preschool age are characterized by the emergence of interest in the game, which is increasingly expanding throughout preschool childhood. The game is the leading activity of the child at this age, various aspects of his mental life develop in him, and many of the most important psychological qualities of his personality are formed. At the same time, the game is an activity that most attracts the child, the most exciting is the child. She is at the center of his interests; she is interested in him and in his
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In turn, reflects all other interests of the child. Everything that interests children in the world around them, in the life that unfolds around them, usually finds some reflection in their games.
It should be noted that the cognitive interests of preschool children aimed at understanding reality are very wide. A preschool child watches for a long time that has attracted his attention from the outside world and asks a lot about what he sees around him. However, as well as at an earlier age, he became interested in everything bright, colorful, and sonorous. Particularly lively interest evokes in him all the dynamic, moving, acting, revealing noticeable, clearly expressed, and in particular unexpected changes. He watches with great interest changes in nature, eagerly observes the growth of plants in the “living corner”, the changes associated with the change of seasons, with the change of weather. He has a lot of interest in animals, especially those with whom he can play (kittens, puppies) or for the behavior of which he can observe for a long time (fish in the aquarium, chickens hovering around the nest, etc.). .
Widely interested in the real reality, pre-school children discover great interest in fantastic stories, especially fairy tales. The same fairy-tale preschool children are ready to listen to many times.
The end of the preschool period and the beginning of school age are usually characterized by the emergence of new interests in the child – an interest in learning, towards school. As a rule, he is interested in the very process of learning, the possibility of a new activity, which he will have to deal with, new rules of school life for him, new duties, new comrades and school teachers. But this initial interest in the school is still undifferentiated. A beginner is attracted to all kinds of work in the school: he equally willingly writes, reads, believes, fulfills assignments. Even the different marks that he receives often cause him the same attitude in the first days. For example, it is known that some children who first came to school are interested first not so much by what mark they received, how many by their quantity.
Over time, interest in school is increasingly differentiated. Initially, isolated, as more interesting, individual subjects. For example, some students are more attracted by reading or writing, others – mathematics, etc. Along with the educational interests at this age, there are some new, out-of-school interests. For example, mastering a grammar creates the prerequisites for the emergence of interest in extracurricular reading, therefore, for the first time the reader’s reader interests arise. In the younger school age, there is considerable interest in “everyday” literature, stories from children’s lives. Fairy tales more and more lose their charm for the child. Often a junior high school student already refuses them, emphasizing that he wants to read about what was “in fact”. Towards the end of this period, the literature on travel and adventure, which in adolescence attracts the greatest interest, especially among boys, comes to the forefront.
In the course of growing up, interest in games is undergoing significant changes. In the life of a schoolboy, the game does not occupy the leading position, it is inferior to the teaching, which for a long time becomes the leading activity of the child.
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But interest in the game still remains, especially this is characteristic of the younger school age.At the same time, the content of games changes significantly. “The role-playing games” of a preschool child go to the background and disappear altogether. Most of all the schoolboy is attracted, on the one hand, by the so-called “desktop”, and on the other hand by the mobile games, in which, over time, the moment of competition is more and more involved, and the interest in sports games that is emerging, especially among boys. As for the interest characteristic of the end of the junior school age, which remains in the years to come, one can point to the collection of certain items, in particular postage stamps.
In adolescence, further changes occur in the interests of schoolchildren. First of all, the interests of the socio-political plan are significantly widening and deepening . The child begins to be interested not only in current events, but also to show interest in his future, to what position he will take in society. This phenomenon is accompanied by an expansion of the cognitive interests of the adolescent. The circle of what the teenager is interested in and what he wants to know becomes wider and wider. And often the cognitive interests of the adolescent are due to his plans for future activities.
Adolescents, of course, differ in their cognitive interests, which at this age are becoming more differentiated.
The youthful age is characterized by the further development of interests, and above all cognitive ones. Students in the upper grades are beginning to be interested in certain areas of scientific knowledge, they are striving for deeper and more systematic knowledge in the field of interest.
In the process of further development and activity, the formation of interests, as a rule, does not cease. With age, a person also has an appearance of new interests. However, this process is largely conscious or even planned, since these interests are largely related to the improvement of professional skills, the development of family relations, as well as those hobbies that for one reason or another were not realized in adolescence.
Particularly it should be emphasized that the formation and development of the interests and motives of the child’s behavior should not take place spontaneously, beyond the control of parents or teachers. Spontaneous development of the interests of the child in most cases determines the possibility of the appearance of negative and even destructive interests and habits, for example, interest in alcohol or drugs. Quite reasonably arises the question of how to avoid the formation of these negative interests in the child. Of course, there is no single “recipe” to avoid this. In each case, you should look for a unique option. Nevertheless, one general pattern can be traced, which makes it possible to talk about the validity of the theoretical views developed in Russian psychology on the problem of the development of the human motivational sphere. This pattern is that motives and interests do not arise out of nowhere or out of nothing. The probability of the emergence of interests or motives for the actions of the child is determined by the activities in which it is involved, as well as those responsibilities that are assigned to it at home or at school.
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One should pay attention to one more point in the problem of the formation and development of the motivational sphere. Goals, which man seeks, may eventually become his motives. And becoming motives, they, in turn, can be transformed into personal characteristics and properties.
22.4. Motivated behavior as a characteristic of personality
In the process of growing up, many of the leading motives of behavior become so characteristic of a person that they turn into personality traits. These include the motivation to achieve, or the motivation to avoid failure, the motive of power, the motive of helping others (altruism), aggressive motives of behavior, etc. Dominant motives become one of the main characteristics of a person, reflecting the characteristics of other personal traits. For example, it has been established that people oriented toward success are more often dominated by realistic ones, while individuals focused on avoiding failures-unrealistic, inflated or underestimated, self-esteem. What does self-esteem depend on? The level of self-esteem is largely related to the person’s satisfaction or dissatisfaction with himself, his activity resulting from success or failure. The combination of life successes and failures, the predominance of one over another, constantly form self-esteem of the individual. In turn, the characteristics of self-esteem are expressed in terms of the overall direction of human activity, because in practice, as a rule, he strives to achieve such results that are consistent with his self-esteem, contribute to its strengthening.
Self-esteem of personality is closely related level of claims. Under the level of claims means the result, which the entity expects to achieve in the course of its activities. It should be noted that significant changes in self-assessment occur when the successes or failures themselves are linked by the subject of activity with the presence or absence of the necessary abilities.
The motives of affiliation (the motive of aspiration for communication) and the authorities areactualized and are satisfied only in the communication of people. The motive of affiliation is usually manifested as a person’s desire to establish good, emotionally positive relationships with people. Inwardly, or psychologically, he acts in the form of feelings of attachment, loyalty, and outwardly – in sociability, in an effort to cooperate with other people, constantly be with them. It should be emphasized that relations between people built on the basis of affiliation are, as a rule, mutual. Communication partners with these motives do not regard each other as a means of meeting personal needs, do not seek to dominate one another, but expect to have equal cooperation. As a result of satisfying the motive of affiliation
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between people there are trusting, open relationships based on sympathies and mutual assistance.
On the opposite, the motive of affiliation is the motive of rejection, manifested in fear of being rejected or rejected by people significant to the individual. The dominance of the motive of affiliation in a person generates a style of communication with people characterized by confidence, ease, openness, and courage. On the contrary, the predominance of the motive of rejection leads to uncertainty, stiffness, unease, and tension. The predominance of this motive creates obstacles in the way of interpersonal communication. Such people cause distrust in themselves; they are lonely, and they have poorly developed communication skills.
Another very important motive of the personality is the motive of power. It is defined as a stable and clearly expressed desire of a person to have power over other people. G. Murray gave this definition to this motive: the motive of power is the tendency to control the social environment, including people, to influence the behavior of other people in various ways, including persuasion, coercion, suggestion, deterrence, prohibition, etc.
The motive of power is manifested in encouraging others to act in accordance with their interests and needs, seek their location, cooperation, prove their rightness, defend their own point of view, influence, direct, organize, direct, supervise, rule, subordinate, rule, dictate conditions, to judge, to establish laws, to determine norms and rules of conduct, to take other decisions for other decisions that oblige them to act in a certain way, persuade, dissuade, punish, enchant, attract to yourself attention, to have followers.
Another researcher of power motivation, D. Veroff, tried to determine the psychological content of the motive power. He believes that the motivation of power is understood as the desire and ability to receive satisfaction from control over other people. In his opinion, signs of the person’s motivation, or motivation, power are expressed emotional feelings associated with the retention or loss of psychological or behavioral control over other people. Another sign of the person’s motivation for power is the satisfaction of defeating another person in any activity or grieving over failure, as well as the reluctance to obey others.
It is generally believed that people who seek power over other people have a particularly strong motive for power. According to its origin, it is probably connected with man’s striving for superiority over other people. The first who paid attention to this motive were the PEFFreydists.The motive of power was declared one of the main motives of human social behavior. For example, A. Adler believed that the desire for excellence, excellence and social power compensates for the natural shortcomings of people experiencing the so-called inferiority complex.
A similar point of view, but theoretically developed in a different context, was followed by another representative of neo-Freudianism, E. Fromm. He established that psychologically the power of one person over other people is reinforced in several ways. First, the opportunity to reward and punish
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|It is interesting
Emotions are one of the most interesting phenomena of the psyche. Emotions are able to cause not only some sensations or general reactions, but also concrete actions. For example, we laugh with joy, shudder at fright, etc. One of these actions is especially seriously studied by psychologists. This action is aggression. By aggression we mean behavior that deliberately inflicts harm to another person (physically or verbally) or destroys his property. The key concept of this definition is intention. If a person accidentally pushes you and immediately apologizes, his behavior can not be regarded as aggressive; But if someone approaches you and demonstratively steps on your foot, then you will have no doubt that this is an aggressive action.
Special attention to aggression is caused by its social significance. Many people often have aggressive thoughts and impulses, and how they cope with these thoughts depends not only on their health and interpersonal relationships, but also on the well-being of others. Today, there are theories that differently consider the problem of aggression and aggression rights. For example, Freud’s psychoanalytic theory regards aggression as an innate need, and the theory of social learning is like a learning reaction.
According to Freud’s early psychoanalytic theory, many of our actions are determined by instincts, in particular, by sexual attraction. When the realization of these drives is suppressed (frustrated), there is a need for aggression. Later, representatives of the psychoanalytic trend began to interpret the manifestation of aggression in the following way: whenever an individual’s efforts to achieve a goal are blocked, an aggressive motive arises that motivates behavior to harm the obstacle that caused frustration. There are two main points to this assumption: firstly, the usual cause of aggression is frustration; secondly, aggression is an innate reaction, and also possesses the properties of an organic need and persists until the goal is achieved. In this treatment of aggression, the most controversial issue is precisely that aspect of the hypothesis that is associated with the consideration of aggression as an organic need.
If aggression is really an organic need, then from other species of mammals, aggressive schemes similar to ours should be expected. Long-term studies have made it possible to accumulate the most diverse data on this issue. In the 60’s. XX century. It was assumed that the main difference between a person and other species is that animals developed mechanisms for controlling their aggressive instincts, but for a person they do not. Subsequent work of the 70’s and 80’s, however, showed that animals can be no less aggressive than we are. It has been shown that cases of murders, rapes and killing of young animals are much more common than believed in the 1960s. For example, one of the types of killing a chimpanzee is related to the border wars that are being waged by them. So, in the Gombi Stream National Park in Tanzania, a group of five males of the chimpanzee guarded their territory from any foreign male wandering there. If this group met another group of two or more males, their reaction was harsh, but not fatal; but if they came across only one uninvited guest, then one member of the group held his hand, the other by the leg, and the third hammered him to death. Or a couple of members of the group dragged the intruder through the rocks until he died. In another border war of chimpanzees, observed in the 70’s, a tribe of about 15 chimpanzees destroyed a neighboring group, methodically killing its male members one by one.
In connection with the data obtained, it is logical to assume that aggression has a biological basis. So, in a number of works it has been shown that moderate electrical stimulation of a certain area of the hypothalamus causes aggressive, even lethal behavior in animals. When the hypothalamus cat is stimulated through implanted electrodes, it hisses, its fur bristles, the pupils dilate, and the cat attacks
Chapter 22. Directivity and motives of the personality • 531
| It is interesting
rat or other objects placed in its cage. Stimulation of another part of the hypothalamus causes a completely different behavior; Instead of manifesting any violent reactions, the cat quietly sneaks up and kills the rat. By a similar technique, aggressive behavior was induced in rats. A rat grown in the laboratory that never killed mice and did not see how they are killed by wild rats can safely live in one cage with a mouse. But if you stimulate her hypothalamus, the rat will rush to her neighbor in a cage and kill her, manifesting the same reactions as a wild rat (a bite in the neck tearing the spinal cord). Stimulation, apparently, triggers an innate reaction to the murder, previously slumbering. Similarly, if in that part of the rat brain, which causes them to spontaneously kill the mouse caught in the eyes, inject a neurochemical blocker, they temporarily become peaceful.
In the above cases, aggression acquires the properties of an organic need, since it is directed by congenital reactions. In higher animals such instinctive schemes of aggression control the cortex of the brain, therefore, they are more influenced by experience. The monkeys living in groups establish a hierarchy of domination: one or two males become leaders, while others occupy different subordinate levels. When the hypothalamus of the dominant monkey is electrically stimulated, it attacks the subordinate males, but not the females. When a low-ranking monkey is stimulated in the same way, it cringes and behaves dutifully. Thus, aggressive behavior in the monkey is not automatically triggered by the stimulation of the hypothalamus, it also depends on its surroundings and past experience. Probably, in people the physiological reactions associated with aggression proceed in a similar way. Although we are equipped with nervous mechanisms of aggression, their activation is usually controlled by the cortex (except in cases of brain damage). In most individuals, the frequency of manifestation of aggressive behavior, the form it takes, and the situations in which it manifests are determined mainly by experience and social influence.
The theory of social learning emphasizes the importance of vicarious learning, or learning through observation. Many behaviors are acquired by observing the actions of others and the consequences that these actions have for them. A child watching the painful expression on the face of an older brother sitting in an armchair with a dentist will be scared when his time comes for the first time to visit a dentist. The theory of social learning emphasizes the role of models in the transmission of specific behaviors, as well as emotional reactions.
Within the framework of this theory, the notion of aggression as a need generated by frustration is rejected. Aggression is considered in it like any other learned reaction. Aggressiveness can be acquired by observation or imitation, and the more often it is reinforced, the more likely it will be. A person who is frustrated because he can not reach the goal, or is concerned with some event, experiences an unpleasant emotion. What kind of reaction this emotion will cause depends on what kind of reactions this individual has learned in order to cope with stressful situations. A person in a state of frustration can seek help from others, show aggression, try to overcome an obstacle, throw everything down or jam itself with drugs and alcohol.The reaction that has most successfully facilitated frustration in the past will be chosen. According to this view, frustration provokes aggression mainly among those people who learned to react to hostile situations by aggressive behavior.
Thus, we have become acquainted with two opposing points of view on the problem of aggression. Which one to give preference? Probably the second point of view is closer to us:
human aggression has a social nature. However, to say that this point of view is absolutely correct, we can not yet. Further targeted research is needed on this complex and topical issue for humanity.
By; Agkinsrn RL , Atkinson RS, Smith EE et al. Introduction to Psychology: A Textbook for Universities / Transl. with English. under. Ed. VP Zinchenko. – Moscow: Trivola, 1999
• Part IV. Mental properties of personality
of people. Secondly, the ability to compel them to perform certain actions, including by means of a system of legal and moral norms that give one the right to rule and the other makes it obligatory to obey the authority that one person has in the eyes of the other.
A special place is occupied by research of so-called prosocial motives and corresponding prosocial behavior. This behavior is understood as any human altruistic actions aimed at the well-being of other people, rendering them assistance. These forms of behavior are diverse in their characteristics and range from simple courtesy to serious charitable assistance provided by a person to other people, and sometimes with great damage to themselves, at the cost of self-sacrifice. Some psychologists believe that this behavior is a special motive, and they call it motive of altruism (motive of help, motive for caring for other people).
Altruistic, or prosocial, behavior is most often characterized as being done for the sake of the good of the other person and without the hope of reward. Altruistically motivated behavior leads more to the well-being of others than to the well-being of the person who implements it. In altruistic behavior acts of caring for other people are carried out according to one’s own conviction, without any calculation or pressure from the outside. In terms of this behavior is diametrically opposed to aggression.
Aggression is seen as a phenomenon in its essence opposite to altruism. During the study of aggressive behavior, it was suggested that behind this form of behavior is a special kind of motive, called the “motive of aggression”. Aggressive are called actions that cause a person any damage: moral, material or physical. Aggression is always associated with deliberate harm to another person.
Some psychological studies have shown that in children from 3 to 11 years of age, there may be signs of aggression towards peers. At this time many children have a tendency to struggle with each other. And aggressive responses as a reaction to the actions of peers in boys are more common than in girls. In psychological literature, this phenomenon is interpreted in different ways. Some authors in this see biological causes, including gender. Others believe that the manifestation of aggression in children is associated with belonging to a particular socio-cultural group and the characteristics of family education.
For example, it has been found that the fathers of children who are characterized by increased aggressiveness often themselves do not tolerate aggression in their homes, but outside of it they allow and even encourage such actions of their children, provoke and support such behavior. Samples for imitation in aggressive behavior are very often the parents themselves. A child who has been repeatedly punished eventually becomes aggressive himself.
The psychological difficulty in eliminating aggressive actions consists, in particular, in the fact that a person who behaves in this way usually easily finds a lot of reasonable justifications for his behavior, completely or partly removing himself from guilt. A well-known researcher of aggressive behavior A. Bandura singled out the following typical ways of justifying by the aggressors themselves of their actions.
Chapter 22. Directivity and motives of the individual’s activity • 533
Bandura Albert (1925-1968) is an American psychologist, the author of the theory of social learning. In 1949 the graduated from the University of British Columbia, then received a master’s degree from the University of Iowa (in 1951). Doctor of Philosophy, University of Iowa. Later he worked at Stanford University as a professor of psychology, and since 1973. – Professor of Social Sciences in Psychology. I came to the conclusion that for the human behavior the “stimulus-response” behavior model is not fully applicable, and offered its model, which, in his opinion, better explains the observed behavior. Based on numerous studies, he gave a new formulation of instrumental conditioning, giving it a central place for learning by observing the sample. At the same time reinforcement was considered by him not as the only determinant of learning, but only as a contributing factor. The main determinant of human learning is the observation of patterns of behavior of other people and the consequences of this behavior: this or that form of behavior becomes motivating by anticipating the consequences of these actions. Such consequences may include not only reinforcement from other people, but also self-reinforcement, which is determined by the assessment of compliance with internally binding standards of conduct. The speed of learning depends on the psychological availability of the subject of imitation and on the effectiveness of verbal coding of the observed behavior. On the basis of his research, Bandura came to the conclusion that anger as a manifestation of a general excitement conducive to aggression will be manifested only when the samples of angry reactions are socially acceptable under the circumstances of this situation.
First, the comparison of one’s own aggressive act with personal flaws or the actions of a person who has been a victim of aggression, with the aim of proving that the acts committed against him do not seem as terrible as they seem at first glance.
Secondly, the justification of aggression against another person by any ideological, religious or other considerations, for example, that it is made of “noble” purposes.
Thirdly, the denial of one’s personal responsibility for the committed aggressive act.
Fourth, removing from oneself part of the responsibility for aggression by referring to external circumstances or to the fact that this action was committed jointly with other people, under their pressure or under the influence of circumstances, for example, the need to execute someone’s order.
Fifth, “humanizing” the victim by “proving” that she allegedly deserves such treatment.
Sixthly, the gradual softening by the aggressor of his guilt by finding new arguments and explanations justifying his actions.
A person has two different motivational tendencies related to aggressive behavior: the tendency to aggression and to its inhibition. The tendency to aggression is the tendency of the individual to assess many situations and actions of people as threatening him and the desire to react to them with his own aggressive actions. The tendency to suppress aggression is defined as an individual predisposition to evaluate own aggressive actions as undesirable and unpleasant, causing regret and remorse.
One of the most important components of the activity is motivation. It is common for a person to ask questions about the reasons that prompted another person to act in a certain way. It becomes obvious that our evaluation of a given behavior always includes taking into account the causal or motivational factor (from the motif – the cause).
In modern psychology, the term “motive” (“motivating factor”) denotes completely different phenomena, such as instinctual impulses, biological drives, interests, desires, life goals and ideals. AN Leontiev believed that the motives of activity are determined by the needs of the individual. The motivational sphere of the individual is mainly composed of needs (the answer to the question “why?”) And motives (the answer to the question “why, for what?”). Like any other system, the motivational sphere of personality includes a certain set of its components, as well as regular and stable links between them.
The purpose of this work is to study the basic components of the motivational sphere of man, namely motives and needs.
To achieve this goal, it is necessary to solve the following tasks:
- Consideration of the concept of the “motivational sphere of personality” and what it is itself;
- Analysis of the origin of needs;
- Determination of motive as a form of manifestation of needs;
- The study of the relationship between the motives and needs of man is based on known theories of motivation.
Theoretical and practical materials on discipline “Man and his needs” and data of professional Internet resources and publications on the basics of general psychology and philosophy serve as theoretical basis for the work.
1. Motivational sphere of personality
Every activity of a person is motivated not by one motive, but by several, i.e. activity is usually politically motivated.The totality of all motives for this activity is called the motivation of the activity of the individual. Motivation is defined as a process that brings together the personal and situational parameters on the way of regulation of activities aimed at transforming the subject situation for the implementation of the appropriate motive, for the implementation of a specific subject relationship of the individual to the surrounding situation. You can talk not only about the motivation of an activity, but also about the general motivation that is characteristic of a given person, having in mind a set of persistent motives.
The set of stable motives that determine the selectivity of human relationships and activity and relatively independent of the available situations is called the personality direction. Directivity as a substructure of the personality includes various motives: its motives, needs, dispositions, interests, aspirations, intentions, ideals, norms, self-esteem, other people’s assessments, level of claims, attitudes, etc. Some of its components are dominant, others perform a secondary role.
Attraction is the primary emotional manifestation of a person’s need for something, an impulse not yet mediated by a conscious goal-setting. In domestic psychology, attraction is seen as a stage of formation of the motive of behavior, i.e.acts as a transient phenomenon: the need presented in it either fades away, or is realized as a concrete desire. Thus, the drives are determined not only by biological factors, but also by social factors. In addition, in the domestic science prevails the opinion that in a person with a developed consciousness of attraction as motives of behavior do not play a leading role, but act as a “building material” for conscious motives. On the other hand, attraction is one of the central concepts of psychoanalysis, where he is given a leading role in the activity and regulation of human behavior.
Installation is a person’s unconscious state of readiness for a particular behavior or activity. Installation is most often the result of repeated repetition of situations in which a person reacts in a certain way. D.Nuznadze developed a theory according to which the needs and situations arising at a meeting determine the direction of the behavior of the subject until the behavior meets certain obstacles. In these cases, unconscious behavior is interrupted, and conscious mechanisms of objectification begin to act. The arising difficulties attract attention and are realized. After consciously finding a new mode of regulation, behavior control is again carried out by subconscious settings. This continuous transfer of control ensures a harmonious and more economical interaction of consciousness and the unconscious.
Desire is one of the forms of a motivational state based on a need that is conscious of content, which does not yet act as a strong motivation for action. Having a motivating force, desire aggravates the awareness of the purpose of the future action and the construction of its plan. If it is impossible to satisfy the desire, a state of frustration arises, accompanied by disappointment, anxiety, irritation, despair, etc.
Interest – a form of manifestation of cognitive needs, expressed by the selective relationship of the individual to the object due to its vital meaning and emotional attractiveness. By promoting orientation, acquaintance with something new, fuller and deeper reflection of reality, interests ensure the person’s orientation to the realization of the goals of activity. In content, interests can be material (to housing amenities, beautiful clothes, etc.) and spiritual (professional, cognitive, aesthetic, etc.). By volume, they can be divided into wide and narrow. They can also be deep and superficial, stable and unstable. The evaluation of interests, in the final analysis, is determined by their content and significance for the individual.
Addiction is the selective orientation of the subject to a certain activity. It is based on a deep and steady need for this activity, aspiration to improve it. Addictions are usually a prerequisite for the development of appropriate abilities, although there may be inconsistencies in propensities and abilities.
The ideal is an important goal of a person’s personal aspirations, a peculiar example, an emotionally colored standard of action.
The worldview is a system of views of man on the world and its laws. The worldview serves as the supreme regulator of the personality’s behavior, determining not only the general orientation of the personality, but also its purposefulness.Ideals and worldview are formed in a person on the basis of his interests and inclinations.
2. Motivation and motivation
Let’s consider the basic concepts describing the motivational sphere of the person, “motivation” and “motive”. In this regard, it should be noted that in human behavior there are two functionally interrelated parties: the incentive and the regulative. Motivation provides activity and direction of behavior, and regulation provides flexibility and stability of behavior in different conditions. Mental processes, properties and states, considered by us earlier, provide mainly regulation of behavior. As for his stimulation, or motivation, it is connected with motivation and motives.
The term “motivation” is used in modern psychology in two senses:
1) motivation is a system of factors that cause the body’s activity and determine the direction of human behavior.This includes such entities as needs, motives, goals, intentions, aspirations, etc .;
2) motivation is a characteristic of the process that provides and maintains behavioral activity at a certain level. In other words, motivation.
Thus, motivation is a combination of psychological causes that explain the behavior of a person, its beginning, direction and activity. This is the search for answers to the questions “why?”, “Why?”, “For what purpose?”, “For what?”, “What’s the point …?”.
Any form of behavior can be explained by both internal and external causes. In the first case we are talking about the psychological properties of the subject of behavior (about his motives, needs, goals, intentions, desires, interests, etc.), and in the second – about the external conditions and circumstances of his activities (about incentives coming from the current situation ). All the psychological factors that, from within, determine the behavior of a person, are called personal dispositions. Then, respectively, talk about dispositional and situational motivations, as analogues of internal and external causes of behavior.
Internal and external motivations are interrelated. The needs and desires of a person can become relevant under the influence of a certain situation, and the activation of needs leads, in turn, to a change in the person’s perception of this situation. In this case, his attention becomes selective, and the subject perceives and assesses the situation in a biased way, proceeding from actual interests and needs. Therefore, the momentary behavior of a person should not be seen as a reaction to certain internal or external stimuli, but as a result of the continuous interaction of his dispositions with the situation. Thus, the motivation of a person can be represented as a cyclic process in which a person and a situation mutually influence each other, and the result of this mutual influence is actually observed behavior.
Unlike motivation, the motive (from the Latin movere – to set in motion, to push) – this is what belongs to the person himself, is his stable personal property, from the inside prompting him to perform certain actions.
Motives can be classified for various reasons. The most simple classification in relation to motives to activity. If the motives that motivate this activity are not related to it, then they are called external motives in relation to this activity (for example, the desire to get a good evaluation of their work). If the motives are directly related to the activity itself, then they are called internal motives (for example, interest in solving the problem).
There are other grounds for classifying motives. For example, the level of awareness of motives are divided into conscious and unconscious. That is, a person can consciously move toward a goal, but may not know what motivates him to act and act in a certain way. The main role in shaping the direction of the person belongs to the realized motives.
In the process of formation of the motive, several steps can be distinguished:
- with the emergence of need, need for something, accompanied by emotional anxiety, discontent begins the motive;
- the awareness of the motive is step-by-step: first it is realized what the cause of emotional displeasure is, then the object that meets this need and can satisfy it (the desire is formed) is realized, then it is realized how by what actions it is possible to achieve the desired;
- the energy component of the motive in real actions is realized.
We see, therefore, that the motives themselves are formed from the needs of man. The process of “recognizing” the need for one’s own object is called objectification. Objectification is an act in which a motive is born.
The need, however, is the primary level of activity of living beings, which organizes and directs cognitive processes and behavior. In order to live and act in the world around us, a person needs food, water, air, movements, objects of material and spiritual culture, and communication. The need, therefore, refers to a person’s awareness and experience of the need for what is necessary to maintain the life of his body and the development of his personality.
In psychology, need and need are differentiated. Need is an objective necessity, which a person can not experience and do not realize. In order to understand this difference, it is sufficient to analyze the simple facts of everyday life. The human body constantly needs oxygen, which enters the bloodstream through breathing. But the need becomes only when there is any deficit: the respiratory system becomes sick, the oxygen content in the atmosphere decreases. In this case, a person suffers from a lack of oxygen, takes some action to eliminate it, rejoices when he can breathe deeply. A person’s state of need in something is transformed into a psychological state-a need .
One of the main characteristics of the need is the selectivity of the response of the living thing to what constitutes the object of needs, i.e. on what the body at the given time is not enough. The need activates the body, stimulates its behavior, aimed at finding what is required. It seems to lead the body. It brings into the state of increased excitability certain psychological processes and organs, supports the activity of the organism until the corresponding state of need is fully satisfied.
The need is for all living beings, and this the living nature differs from inanimate. The quantity and quality of needs that living beings have depends on the level of their organization, on the way of life and the conditions of life, on the place occupied by the corresponding organism on the evolutionary ladder. The fewest requirements for plants that need mainly mainly in certain biochemical and physical conditions of existence. Most of all the diverse needs of a person who, in addition to physical and organic needs, also has material, spiritual, social. For the development of man as an individual, it is sufficient to satisfy his physical and organic (biogenic) needs, but for the normal development of the personality it is necessary to satisfy social and spiritual needs.
According to H.Hekhausen, the need is understood as a hypothetical variable, which, depending on the circumstances, manifests itself as a motive, then as a personality trait. In the latter case, the needs are stable and become qualities of character.
The second, after the need for its motivational meaning, is a goal. The goal is called the realized result, the achievement of which is currently directed action related to activities that meet the actual need. The goal is perceived by the person as the image of the desired future, the nearest expected result of his activity.
It is customary to distinguish between the purpose of activity and the goal of life. This is due to the fact that a person has to perform a variety of activities throughout his life, in each of which a specific goal is being realized. But the goal of any particular activity reveals only one of the aspects of the personality’s direction that manifests itself in this activity. The life goal acts as a generalizing factor of all private goals associated with individual activities.
With life goals, the level of individual achievement is linked, “the concept of one’s own future”. A person’s awareness of not only the goal, but also the reality of its implementation, is viewed as the prospect of the individual.
The state of frustration, depression, characteristic of a person who realizes the impossibility of achieving the goal, is called frustration. This condition occurs when a person is faced with really insurmountable obstacles, barriers to achieving the goal or, when they are perceived as such.
Needs, motives and goals are the main components of the human motivational sphere, and this can be seen in Fig.
The motivational sphere of a person, from the point of view of its development, can be assessed by the following parameters: breadth, flexibility and hierarchy.
Under the breadth of the motivational sphere is understood the qualitative variety of motivational factors. The more a person has various motives, needs and goals, the more developed is his motivational sphere.
More flexible is the motivational sphere of a person who, depending on the circumstances of satisfying the same motive, can use more diverse means than another person. For example, in one person, the need for knowledge can be satisfied only with the help of television and cinema, and for another, books, periodicals, communication with people are also a means of satisfying it. In the latter, the motivational sphere will be more flexible.
The next characteristic of the motivational sphere is the hierarchy of motives. Some motives and goals are stronger than others and arise more often;others are weaker and less frequent. The more differences in the strength and frequency of actualization of the motivational formations of a certain level, the higher the hierarchization of the motivational sphere.
In terms of impact, the creation of motives can be designated as motivation. Motivation is the process of inducing activity and communication to achieve the personal goals of the organization. In other words, to motivate is, therefore, to, create, attract, or need. The need in this case is internal, and the goal is the external aspect of motivation. To motivate people means, therefore, to touch upon their important interests, to create conditions for them.
The problem of studying motivation has always attracted the attention of researchers. Therefore, there are many different concepts and theories on the motives, motivation and direction of the individual. Let’s look at some of them in general terms.
2.1.Determination of motive and formation of needs.
Theories of motivation
Leontiev defines the motive in the following way: “In the neediest state of a subject, an object that is able to satisfy a need is not rigidly recorded.” Prior to its first satisfaction, its need, it must still be detected. acquires its objectness, and the perceived (represented, conceivable) object is its motivating and guiding function; that is, it becomes the motive. ”
In other words, the motive is an objectified need.
For example: thirst is a need, water is a motive, and a bottle of water.
Motive is a motivation for action. So, G. Godroit defines the motive as “consideration, according to which the subject must act.”
H. Hekhausen, defines the motive as “the desired target state within the framework of the” individual – environment “relationship.
If, when analyzing needs, a person gives an answer to the question of why he acts or does not act in a certain way, then in analyzing the motives.
According to AN Leontiev, genetically the initial for human activity is the discrepancy of motives and goals. Unlike goals, motives are not really realized by the subject. At the same time, they find their mental reflection in the form of emotional coloring of actions (that is, they give personal meaning to action).
AN Leontiev believed that the motives of activity are determined by the needs of the individual. In the subject’s needfulness, an object that is able to satisfy. Prior to its first satisfaction, its need, it must still be discovered. Only as a result of such a discovery, the need arises, the objective, and the perceived (represented, conceivable) object is the motivating and guiding function of the function, which informs it of the status of the motive.
The development of human activity. Some motives, by stimulating activity, giving it a personal meaning (meaningful motives), while others, acting as motivators, lack meaning-generating functions (motives-stimuli).
Human activity is guided not by motive, but by their totality. In this case, you can identify internal motives and external motives. At the heart of internal motives, human needs, his emotions, interests. External factors include goals that emanate from the situation (environmental factors). The totality of internal and external motives is organized in a certain way and constitutes the motivational sphere of the individual. The main relationship characterizing the motivational sphere of the individual is the relationship of the hierarchy of motives.
A. Maslow built in hierarchy of motives in terms of their proximity to satisfaction of vital needs. The hierarchy is based on the need to maintain physiological homeostasis; above are motives for self-preservation; further – confidence, prestige, love. At the top of the hierarchy are cognitive and aesthetic motives, leading to the development of self-actualization and the individual.
Fig.2. The hierarchy of fundamental needs (according to A. Maslow)
These groups are ordered in the value hierarchy according to their role in the development of the personality. At the same time, the needs of the higher and higher levels are interpreted as less instinct-like (innate) than lower needs. While the need is not satisfied, it activates the activity and affects it. Activity is not so much “pushed from within” as it is attracted from outside. The main idea of A. Maslow’s classification is the principle of the relative priority of the actualization of motives, which states that before the activation of the demand for higher levels and the behavior of the need for higher levels, the lower level needs to be satisfied.
G. Murray, the creator of the well-known thematic apperceptive test (TAT), tried to systematize various theoretical approaches and concepts in the study of motivation. From his point of view, the central, interrelated concepts should be considered the need for the person and the pressure from the situation. Murray had various reasons for classifying needs.
- First, allocate primary needs – in water, food, sexual discharge, avoidance of cold, etc. – and secondary (psychogenic) needs: humiliation, achievements, affiliations. aggression, independence, opposition, respect, protection, domination, attracting attention to oneself, avoiding harm, avoiding failures, patronage, order, play, rejection, comprehension, sexual relations, seeking help (dependence), understanding. G.Murray also added to them the needs of acquisition, avoidance of accusation, cognition, creation, training, recognition, preservation. Primary needs, unlike secondary ones, are based on organic processes and arise either cyclically (food) or in connection with the need for regulation (avoiding cold).
- Secondly, the needs are subdivided into positive (search) and negative (avoidance), explicit and latent. Explicit needs are expressed freely and objectively in the external behavior, latent ones are manifested either in game actions (semiobjective), or in fantasy (subjective). In certain situations, individual needs can be combined into motivations of behavior: conflict with one another, obey one another, and so on.
The pressure is determined by the scientist in the following way: “… some influence”, “exerted on the subject” . When determining the pressure, it makes sense to distinguish:
- alpha pressure – then the actual pressure that can be established by scientific methods;
- beta-pressure, which is interpreted by him. “
The need and pressure to correspond to each other meaningfully, the interaction of human activity.
In the concept of motivation, D. McClelland considers the three main groups of needs: in power, in success, in involvement. For the first time, the need for power. It is viewed as a synthetic and derivative of the needs for respect and self-expression. The need for success (or the motivation for achievement) is the second basic need of the individual. The author was one of the first to show that he was a man of the first to show his own “bar” of achievements; Thus, the need for success in itself (and through it – in recognition from others) is common to all, but the measure of its development is different. McClelland believed,that the degree of development of this need depends on the achievements of man and, in the final analysis, the prosperity and power of a country.
In the “theory of expectation” of V. Vrum an important place in the organization of human behavior is assigned to the evaluation of the probability of a certain event by the personality. When disclosing the structure of motivation and the process of behavior in this theory, special attention is paid to the three main relationships.
- First, they are expectations about the relationship between labor inputs and outcomes. If a person feels that there is a direct connection between them, then the motivation increases, and vice versa.
- Secondly, it is the expectations about the relationship between results and rewards, ie, expectations of a certain reward or reward in response to the achieved level of results. If there is a direct link between them and the person, clearly sees this, then his motivation increases.
- Thirdly, it is the subjective valence of the expected reward or reward. Valence means the perceived value of satisfaction or dissatisfaction.
Another approach to describing motivation is offered by the theory of justice (M.Meskon, M.Albert, M.Hedouri, 1992). According to it, people are able to determine the ratio of the benefits of the struggle If the comparison reveals an imbalance and injustice (that is, a person believes that his colleague receives a greater reward for the same job), then he has mental stress. At the same time, in order to motivate an employee, it is necessary to restore justice by eliminating imbalance. According to the theory of justice, until they begin to believe that they are getting fair compensation, they will strive to reduce the intensity of labor. In this case, the perception and assessment of justice are relative.
Theories do not contain a comprehensive detailed analysis. Many authors deny the principal possibility of creating a unified theory of motivation that satisfactorily explains the source of the person’s purposeful activity.
So, the motivational sphere of the person is mainly the needs and motives.
All the components of the motivational sphere of the personality are represented not chaotically, but whole: they are ordered and interrelated. The motivational sphere of a person can be compared to a building where the above components are located in a strict hierarchy (subordinate).
AN Leontiev believed that the motives of activity are determined by the needs of the individual. In the subject’s needfulness, an object that is able to satisfy a need is not rigidly fixed. Prior to its first satisfaction, the need “does not know” its subject, it must still be discovered. Only as a result of such a discovery, the need acquires objectivity, and the perceived (represented, conceivable) object is the impelling and directing activity of the function, informing it of the status of the motive.
Genetically, the initial for human activity is the discrepancy of motives and goals. Their coincidence is secondary: the result of acquiring the goal of an independent motive force or the result of an awareness of motives that turns them into motives-goals. Unlike goals, motives are not really recognized by the subject: at the moment of doing certain actions, we usually do not realize the motives that motivate them. Despite the fact that it is not difficult for us to cite their motivation, this motivation does not always contain an indication of the actual motive. When motives are not realized, i.e.when a person does not realize what motivates him to perform certain actions, they find their mental reflection in a special form – in the form of an emotional coloring of actions.
AN Leontiev singled out two main functions of motives: motivation and meaning formation. Some motives, impelling activity, give it a personal meaning. Others, acting as the motivating factors – sometimes sharply emotional, affective, – are devoid of meaning-forming functions; such motives AN Leontiev called incentive motives. The distribution of the functions of sense formation and motivation between the motives of the same activity makes it possible to understand the main relations characterizing the motivational sphere of the individual, the hierarchy of motives.
Over the years, scientists have not given up hope of explaining human behavior. The result of this interest is numerous theories of motivation, a number of which is more than one dozen. At present, this problem has not lost its relevance but rather the reverse. This is due to the growing demands of practice: in the sphere of production, the issues of activating and managing human behavior and the problems of optimizing the use of human resources are becoming increasingly important and urgent. Nevertheless, the study of motivation is far from the final solution to all issues.