Ethical Issues in Dealing with Seasonal Influenza
An influenza pandemic, like any public health event or emergency of international importance, requires making certain decisions that demand a balance between individual interests and the interests of the community, which can potentially find itself in conflict. The authorities can appeal to the principles of ethics, as tools to assess and balance competing interests and values. An ethical approach does not offer a recommended set of policies. Instead, twenty-one applies principles such as equity, utility, and efficiency, freedom, reciprocity and solidarity in light of the context and local cultural values. While the application of These principles sometimes gives rise to competing claims, the authorities can use them as a framework for evaluating and weighing a series of interests, which facilitate the consideration of general concerns (such as the protection of human rights and the particular needs of vulnerable groups and minorities) in planning and responding to pandemic influenza. All As it limits individual rights and civil liberties it should be necessary, reasonable, proportional, equitable, without discrimination or in contravention of laws
National and international
The influenza B virus causes a typical pattern of influenza. Not always, of course, there are light diseases. In any case, it can cause a typical picture of the flu. It causes, although not every year, seasonal outbreaks, but never causes a pandemic. Pandemics are caused by influenza a virus. It should be noted that from a strict classification point of view one can say: the influenza A virus. However, virologists usually say in the plural: the influenza A viruses because, indeed, the variants of this virus are extremely diverse (Mcmenemy et al., 2007). Also, influenza A viruses do not only affect a person. They amaze, say, waterfowl. Strictly speaking, this is their main reservoir (Ethics, 2012).
Here you are here in this picture can see it. The main host of influenza A viruses is waterfowl, to lesser extent gulls. Also, it affects man, pigs, horses, seals, and other non-waterfowl birds. Here a whale is drawn, but it was necessary to draw dolphins. Each owner has variants of these viruses. Although, as you can see from these arrows, which are depicted here, it happens, albeit rarely, the intersection of interspecific barriers and the transmission of viruses from one host to another.
Influenza a virus in different hosts manifests itself in different ways. In ducks and geese, this is most often an asymptomatic intestinal infection. In humans, it causes a typical picture of the flu. It is the influenza A virus that causes not only seasonal outbreaks but also pandemics that occur every few decades. Pandemics encompass the whole globe, and if millions of people are sick in an epidemic, with a seasonal outbreak, and thousands and tens of thousands are killed, hundreds of millions are already suffering from a pandemic, and millions are dying (Berlin, 2016).
The profession of the doctor in ancient times and today is one of the most humane, which brings the essence and significance of the attitude of society to the representatives of this profession each person during life at least once in a poke with the need to consult doctors about these or other diseases. Any person who has come to see a doctor has the right to hope for a worthy, respectful attitude once these problems are dealt with by medical ethics and deontology.
To understand the essence of this phenomenon, it is essential to use the correct terminology. From the standpoint of social regulation of medical activities, medical (medical) ethics is a form of professional ethics that includes a set of moral and ethical rules and principles for the provision of medical care. Medical ethics serves as a kind of theoretical basis, the rationale for the moral and ethical behavior of medical workers. Deontology (from the Greek deon, deontos – due, due logos – doctrine) can be considered an integral part of medical ethics, a kind of practical application dealing with problems of proper behavior.
Often the relevance of the problems of lawmaking and the need in connection with the smoke of early adoption of new legal acts explains some disregard for legislators and inattention to the issues of medical ethics and its deontology, which is unacceptable. Superficial, insufficiently developed, and created without regard to ethical and deontological prerequisites; a legal act is undoubtedly more harmful than useful. It is known that a large number of positions of the provisions of modern medical ethics are formed based on ancient postulates (Shaman, et al., 2010).
The profession of a physician, doctor, a doctor has long been recognized today as one of the most humane and noble. With this statement, it is difficult not to agree. Each of us over the course of our life has faced the need to appeal to medical workers with certain problems.
Certainly, any person who has turned to medical workers for help has the right to hope for a decent, based on respect for the individual, attitude. It is these problems that medical ethics are engaged in, to which, with a certain degree of conventionality; one can include medical ethics and deontology.
Medical ethics is one of the important tools that justify multi-level social regulation of social relations that arise in the process of providing medical care to the population. It seems reasonable to dwell, first, on issues related to the main definitions of the investigated sphere of social relations.
The definition, according to which, medical ethics is a kind of professional ethics, studying “a set of principles of regulation and norms of behavior of physicians, conditioned by the peculiarities of their practical activity, position, and role in society, has become quite widespread. In the same vein, the statement is formulated: medical ethics is a “set of requirements (principles, rules, and norms) for the professional activity (behavior) of a doctor (medical worker) and his moral qualities (Shaman, et al., 2010).
There is a point of view according to which deontology should be considered an integral part of medical ethics or as a separate ethical direction related to the direct professional activity of medical workers. The encyclopedic dictionary of medical terms defines by which medical deontology is “a set of ethical norms and principles of behavior of a medical worker in the performance of his professional duties.
In this regard, in the context of reviewing the levels of social regulation of the sphere of medical activity, it is appropriate to designate medical ethics as a scientific discipline, the subject of the investigation of which is the set of moral, ethical, and moral rules for the implementation of medical activities. It is advisable to consider deontology as an integral part of medical ethics, the subject of study of which are the practical aspects of observing norms of proper behavior of medical workers when they carry out their professional activities (Harper et al., 2009).
The problems of the correlation between medical ethics and lawfulness must be examined through the prism of the analysis of the role and place of ethical-deontological regulation of social relations in a single system of social regulation of the sphere of medical activity.
The importance of the problems considered by medical ethics and deontology in the construction of the system of social regulation of medical activities is justified by the fact that ethics and deontology should be considered as a mandatory discipline in the system of general legal training of medical workers. It is only by knowledge of medical ethics and deontology that it becomes possible to thoroughly study the principles of biomedical ethics, medical and legal ethics, and, ultimately, to comprehend the provisions of the current regulatory framework for the regulation of professional medical activities. The study and comprehension of laws and by-laws must continue throughout the professional work of medical personnel in the framework of continuous postgraduate professional education.
According to the American College of Healthcare Executives (ACHE), articles on various ethical issues of physicians were published worldwide. Such some publications on this issue are not accidental. World experience shows the importance of the issues under consideration and the importance attached to the ethical education of doctors, and middle and junior medical personnel.
This seems to be closely related to the insufficient assessment and misunderstanding of the essence of the legal education of medical workers. Often the provisions of regulatory, and legal acts in the sphere of medical activity are studied, analyzed, and taught in conditions of insufficient knowledge or lack of understanding of the main provisions of such disciplines as medical ethics and deontology, biomedical ethics, medical and legal ethics. Such training is at least useless, and at times harmful. With this approach, legally verified provisions of normative and legal acts remain only a declaration and do not fulfill their basic purpose: regulation of relationships between subjects of medical and legal relations (Harper et al., 2009).
In this connection, medical ethics and deontology should be introduced as a special course in the program of primary education of medical specialists (higher and secondary specialties – AP), and not limited to brief information on these issues. Because of this approach, everyone will benefit from the training of specialists-both citizens, as potential patients, and medical workers, as qualified professionals-professionals. Thus, moral, ethical, and deontological regulation is the initial level of social regulation of medical activity. Other levels of social regulation include bioethics, medical and legal ethics, and medical law.
Harper, S. A., Bradley, J. S., Englund, J. A., File, T. M., Gravenstein, S., Hayden, F. G., … Zimmerman, R. K. (2009). Seasonal Influenza in Adults and Children—Diagnosis, Treatment, Chemoprophylaxis, and Institutional Outbreak Management: Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 48(8), 1003–1032. https://doi.org/10.1086/598513
Berlin, L. (2016). Medicolegal – Malpractice and ethical issues in radiology: Potential risks when dealing with self-referred patients. American Journal of Roentgenology. https://doi.org/10.2214/AJR.15.15619
Shaman, J., Pitzer, V. E., Viboud, C., Grenfell, B. T., & Lipsitch, M. (2010). Absolute humidity and the seasonal onset of influenza in the continental United States. PLoS Biology, 8(2). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000316
Mcmenemy, D., Poulter, A., & Burton, P. F. (2007). A Handbook of Ethical Practice: A Practical Guide to Dealing with Ethical Issues in Information and Library Work. A Handbook of Ethical Practice: A Practical Guide to Dealing with Ethical Issues in Information and Library Work. https://doi.org/10.1533/9781780631028
Ethics, M. C. for A. (2012). Ethical Issues in Dealing with Seasonal Influenza. Retrieved from https://www.scu.edu/ethics/focus-areas/bioethics/resources/ethical-issues-in-dealing-with-seasonal-influenza/