An ethical decisions denotes as a complex state that represent two conflicting mental resolutions. However, a choice has to be made out of the options available. The decision to choose one issue from the other available choices in a particular situation may result in indiscretion resulting in dire consequence (Gordon, 2016). s. Ethical decisions ensue in everyday life and individuals are obligated to make choices irrespective of the outcome. Crucial factor that affects our choices when faced with an ethical decision in nursing is our behavior to others, our everyday relations, our decisions and several other areas in our individual values. The individual values of a person are important to them and consist of a lasting effect. Personal values develop as one grows up and they have a great influence on individual’s attitudes and behavior and they form the elementary guidelines to which an individual makes reference of when confronted with an ethical decision. They reflect on what a person considers right or wrong.
The issue of ethical decision in nursing has been discussed by various theories but majorly in this paper the Deontological theory is the focus of the discussion. It the theory that was introduced by a philosopher by the name Immanuel Kant hence sometimes is referred to us as Kantian theory(Gordon, 2016).. The theory puts forwards that; ethics is an action that considered to be morally good simply because of some behaviors of the action but not the results of the action. The theory hold that, some actions are morally obligatory regardless of their significances for human welfare the explanations of such ethics are such expressions as the “duty for duty sake” the issue of virtue is the only reward and justice should be done.
Deontological ethics is a decision making model that lays emphases on the rightness or wrongness of activities themselves as opposed to the consequences of the actions. This theory stresses on the devotion to duty as prime degree of moral virtue. The code of respect is profoundly imbedded in this model and indicates to the impression that respect for another comprise respect for autonomous choices (Gordon, 2016). Use of this model to analyses the nurse’s case will suggest that breaking the confidentiality of the client’s information is morally wrong. This is because first it would not have obeyed the duty at work to respect patient confidentiality at work place. In addition, disclosing the information will show disrespect to the nurse’s autonomy.
Sometimes in professional endeavors, ethical decisions are prone to arise. We may be faced with choices as to whether to follow our own values or respect and follow the ethics and rules of the organizations where we are employed for which might be conflicting with our personal ethics and beliefs. For example, many psychologists have ranked the subject of breaking confidentiality as a common ethical disturbing incident that they face many times (Pope & Vasquez, 2016). The law says that it is not wrong to break confidentiality in situations where the client or any other affected parties are in danger nevertheless, the American Psychological Association stresses the significance of keeping clients information confidential (Knapps, et al.,2015). Hence, once psychologists are faced with this kind of incidences, they rely on their personal values in order for them to make a decision. While making a ethical decision, one needs to bear in mind the wellbeing of the client and other people and must be truthful and deal fairly with the client.
When faced with an ethical dilemma in nursing, it is of paramount importance to consider various dimensions that the client has and the fact that the choice make will touch all these parts of the client’s life. When faced with a choices regarding the mental wellbeing of a client and the guidelines provided in the business where one is working in is not an enough guide in making a convincing decision, it is vital to turn to decision-making models. Having been presented with an ethical dilemma concerning the information gathered while working in the office a primary care medical facility.
Through the theory of Deontology is the obligation of duty where molarity of the acts rely on the nature of the actions engaging in harm actions is not accepted because of the irrespective of the consequences. The decision made by an individual might be appropriate at personal level but it does not necessarily result to good outcome to other people. For instance, the doctor patient association or interaction is by nature. The medical practices involves the traditions and when the deontological phenomena is applied the issue of medical of negligence arises. According to the tradition the doctors are supposed to do well to the patients. The goodness tries to strengthen the bond between the doctor and the patient.
Confidentiality in clinical practice is an essential code in obtaining the anticipated therapeutic effect. Therapy is a concerted process where the client and the psychotherapist need to build trust hence need for confidentiality of information (Pope & Vasquez, 2016). The psychologist has a major obligation to safeguard the information obtained during therapy and put the essential measures to protect the patient information. Many other associations approve with these while others argue that in some circumstances confidentiality code is not pertinent. For example, American counseling association recommends three circumstances where defiance of confidentiality is necessary. It advocates that in situations where a child is involved, when legal necessities force us, or when there is an instant danger toward the client or other stakeholders, we should contemplate on breaking confidentiality (Domenech, et al., 2014). Despite the presence of ethical guidelines that advise as conditions when breaking of confidentiality is suitable, it us up to personal values and ethics where decisions come from.
In many cases for instance, the doctor has been prescribed antipsychotic medication for the control of schizophrenia. Although the duty to respect patient confidentiality in the workplace, he fear the potential harm such a person could cause in a position of authority over patients (Pope & Vasquez, 2016). The choices he is experiencing is whether he should keep the confidentiality of the information the doctor gathered about the patient. The motive of thinking about breaching confidentiality is because if people does not know the doctor’s psychological status, and he has a psychotic break or experiences side effects from the antipsychotic medications, there is a chance of harming the patient who is under his care.
In this case, the doctor is faced with numerous questions. Should he break the patient’s confidentiality and let the hospital and other people know about his schizophrenic and antipsychotic medications? What if the doctor harms or even kills the patient? According to the ethics guidelines it seems that discloses the information hence breaking confidentiality is appropriate since there are patients involved. However, on the other hand the doctor is posed with the challenge of if he break the confidentiality what kind of harm will he cause to the patient. The doctor found himself thinking, will the hospital and the people support the patient? Will the doctor loose his healing license? Therefore there is need to find a balance between protecting the confidentiality of the doctor as well as protecting the patient.
The deontological theory tries to explain how doctors are supposed to adopt the issue of making appropriate decisions in their various working places. The deontological outline three major guidelines that should be followed in making the right decision at various work place the principles include; First, Doctors should be autonomous (Pope & Vasquez, 2016). Through this principle, doctors have freedom of making decision. This implies that they should be free in making choices from the subjective concerning of what they desire, fears by considering the negative repercussion or other relevant decision making influences. Secondly, the nurses should be categorical imperative. They should have the belief that ethical decision is universal. It should applied consistently all over the time, societal norms, and eve the cultures. Finally, the ethical consideration involves duty, respect for others and intention. The duty involve an individual who does the right thing, and intention implies that to continue behaving ad doing right and keep the dignity, respect for other people(Gordon, 2016).
When faced with this kind of ethical decisions it is essential to employ the use of decision-making model to guide in the decision making process hence avoid confusion and anxiety (Gordon, 2016).. During the ethical decision-making, the doctor will try to evaluate this case using the recommendations of deontologist like Immanuel Kant to pass the right ethical judgement in order to avoid making unwanted mistakes that might affect client negatively an interfering with their lives. On the same note integrity plays very important role in ethical decision making because the integrity makes the decision maker to feel autonomous. If denied the opportunity due to external pressures the decision maker might make t unethical decision
Pope, S., & Vasquez, M. J. (2016). Ethics in psychotherapy and counseling: A practical guide. John Wiley and sons.
Domenech Rodriguez, M. M., Erickson Cornish, J. A., Thomas, J. T., Forrest,L.,Anderson, A., & Bow, J. N. (2014). Ethics education in professional psychology: A survey of American Psychological Association accredited programs.
Knapps,S. J., Gottlieb,M. C.,& Handelsman. M. M. (2015). Ethical dilemmas in psychotherapy: positive approaches to decision making. American Psychological Association.
Gordon, J. S. (2016). Clinical ethics consultation: theories and methods,implementation,evaluation. Routledge.