Question I and II
Thin Blue Line
This was a term coined to denote a boundary of police use of force in holding down pervasive crimes following the Watts Riot.
This was an act of protest by young African American staged after Woolworth’s lunch counter in Greensboro refused to serve them. After a widespread protest, it forced Woolworths to change their segregationist policies.
This term referred to the right that the blacks were granted by the U.S Congress to participate in the voting process in Mississippi after passing the civil rights act of 1964.
Boycott of Wonder Bread
The boycott of wonder bread was called by Martin Luther King Jr due to the racist nature of the company. Wonder bread was notorious for discrimination against the black employees, and it discriminated them by denying them promotion. However, the call for wonder bread boycott did not gain much prominence.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
This was a right civil protest by African American against segregated seats in bus rides in Alabama This boycott was also engineered by Martin Luther Jr and other civil right activists like Rosa Parks. After a long struggle with a protest against black people segregation in the bus Montgomery federal court ruled that it was a violation of the human right of equality of race and protection.
Racial Imbalance Act
The law was enacted to find racial imbalance at public schools and to inform the school board of education in writing. The law was intended to bring equality in public schools among the races.
This was a protest against race segregation especially on the blacks in bus rides in 1961. It led to banning of the segregation by the Supreme Court.
METCO was established to expand equal educational opportunities and diversity in Boston by admitting other students from different races.
Civil Rights Movement
Leaders at the forefront of this movement included Philip Randoph, Bayard Rustin and Martin Luther. This was a struggle for equality during the 1950s and 1960s by the black people seeking equal social rights under the United States Law. It led to the abolishment of slavery despite failing to put an end to discrimination against the blacks. The movement led to legislative changes seeking equality and voting rights for the Africa American. With both the 14th and 15th in 1848 and 1870 amendment giving blacks protection and right to vote respectively.
This was a civil right rallying phrase by Willie Ricks. Its goals were inspired and achieve self-determination for the black people. Black power slogan was instrumental and led to the current black lives matter movement. Black power featured new tactics and goals such resilience and use of violence as a defense against oppression.
Boston Civil Rights Movement
This movement was started in the spirit of the African symbol, Sankofa which reminded them to keep their heritage. The movement entailed freedom campaigns, peaceful protest, and demonstration against de facto segregation in the schools in Boston.
Differentiate between SNCC and SCLC and causes
Martin luther king and Bayard Rustin were the founder of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). SNCC which is the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee was a civil right group founded for the young blacks to give them a voice in the civil right movement. SNNC was birthed from SCLC by Ella Baker in the wake of sit-in at Greenboro lunch counter where some black students were denied service. Ellas felt that SCLC was out of touch with what young black people required and she felt that Martin Luther King was too controlling. She then went ahead and formed the SNCC. Ella Baker encouraged the young black people to view SNCC as a form of integration to broader social change and to envision the principles of Martin Luther King of non-violence as a way of life and not merely as a political tactic.
SNCC played vital roles in movements such as the Freedom Rides which were strongly against segregation in the bus rides. SNCC was instrumental in the voters’ registration of the blacks in the south.
De facto VS de Jure segregation
De facto segregation was a situation where legislation in place during racial integration efforts did not segregate students by race but still segregation in the schools continued. This segregation was not due to the law but was seen in the pattern of the settlement. De facto segregation was mainly practiced by bitter southerners. A perfect example of de facto segregation was the “white flight” which was a mass migration of the white citizens when schools were integrated. What occurred was the parent of the white students enrolling their children in private schools.
De jure segregation is the kind of segregation established by the law. An example of de jure segregation is where the blacks and whites were allowed to segregated as long the law stipulated equal rights.
Instrumental vs. Expressive
Expressive political concerns itself with the emotions and morale of its members to ensure that it succeeds. It involves coaching and following up members to take actions while instrumental politics is goal-oriented and set objectives are keenly followed. Political leaders following this system ensures that the group meets its goals.
1950s roots of 1960s
The events of the 1950s such as the World War II shaped many trends in the 1960s. for example the resulting effect of the world warII such as job creation and higher incomes allowed the youths in the 1960s to change their focus from political conformity to serious public actions.