Academic Master


Different Forms Of Validity and Reliability


The instrument used in this questionnaire survey was SPSS. SPSS was employed to determine the responses of the individuals. The survey questionnaire contains 110 items and identifies 13 thinking styles regarding the cognitive style test. The survey questionnaire assesses whether the person has become disillusioned and indicates losing faith, dissatisfaction, or trust in the marriage. The instrument i.e. SPSS creates the conditions for happiness such as affiliation, trust of others, optimism, the locus of control, emotional stability, self-confidence, approval-seeking, and playfulness. The instrument also examines the styles which include trust style, externalizing style, dependency style, control style, blaming style, perfectionistic style, and demand style. The survey questionnaire was employed in the SPSS and assessed the tendencies that resulted in avoidance and anxiety.


The questionnaire survey measures self-esteem, a person’s attitude towards another person. As well as, this survey questionnaire considers whether a person has an anxiety disorder and assesses the degree of control that they feel in major areas of life such as interpersonal relationships, personal accomplishments, and political institutions.

The test applied to this survey questionnaire provides knowledge about the individual on self-improvement. The questionnaire also explains problem behavior due to behavior thought and the irrational thinking the person can learn to change. It is important to understand the test applied in the questionnaire to retain the information. All 110 items were inserted in the SPSS software for further statistical analysis or tests.

Psychometric Properties

Major types of reliability:

This study’s two major kinds of reliability are inter-rater and inter-observer reliability. This reliability determines whether two observers are consistent in the observations. The researcher establishes the measurement of inter-rater reliability in the study and uses it to find out the data from the study to establish the reliability of the questionnaire. Hence, for each and every observation, the inter-rater checks three of the categories. The main way to evaluate the inter-rater reliability is suitable when the measure is continuous enough to run in the instrument (Joubert, Inceoglu, Bartram, Dowdeswell and Lin, 2015).

Test-retest reliability:

This is the second main type of reliability, which assumes substantial change and measures two occasions within a short time. The observations associated with the data may get identical factors to contribute to the error.

Types of validity

External validity:

External validity is regarding generalization, which shows how much the data impacts the research study. This validity is examined by splitting two distinct kinds such as ecological validity and population validity (Pennebaker, Boyd, Jordan and Blackburn, 2015).

Internal validity:

The internal validity measures the design experiment closely, which follows the cause and effect of the principle. There is an alternative cause that demonstrates the outcomes and observations (Csikszentmihalyi and Larson, 2014).

Psychometric Properties of the Instrument

This questionnaire includes several forms of reliability and validity. In contrast, the instrument’s psychometric properties refer to the instrument’s validity and reliability, which shows the difference between the two. The questionnaire reliability refers to the consistency of the data where the survey questionnaire’s validity tests the outcomes’ accuracy. The survey questionnaire’s reliability assists the data in having a valid assessment that can produce the prediction in the questionnaire and tests.


Joubert, T., Inceoglu, I., Bartram, D., Dowdeswell, K. and Lin, Y., 2015. A comparison of the psychometric properties of the forced choice and Likert scale versions of a personality instrument. International Journal of Selection and Assessment23(1), pp.92-97.

Pennebaker, J.W., Boyd, R.L., Jordan, K. and Blackburn, K., 2015. The development and psychometric properties of LIWC2015.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. and Larson, R., 2014. Validity and reliability of the experience-sampling method. In Flow and the foundations of positive psychology (pp. 35-54). Springer Netherlands.




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