What are the key differences between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus develops early in life and is caused by an autoimmune reaction. However, type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is usually diagnosed in adults due to carrying excess weight and being inactive in life. It usually develops over the course of many years. In people diagnosed with type 1 DM, the body completely stops making insulin because the immune system attacks pancreatic beta cells in the body and they survive while taking daily insulin injections. People with type 2, on the other hand, can make insulin in their bodies but their cells cannot take up glucose so beta cells exhaust and cause the body to increase blood sugar levels (Banasik, 2021). The key difference between the conditions of diabetes namely type 1 and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is that type 1 is mainly a genetic condition whereas type 2 is caused due to some deterrence in lifestyle-related conditions.
What are the six major elements to consider when screening individuals for diabetes risk?
Six major elements that must be considered when a person is screened for diabetes are as follows:
- Blood pressure should be screened in people with diabetes risk.
- Cholesterol levels should be tested once a year.
- Kidneys should be screened by taking a sample of the patient’s urine for the test.
- Foot examination must be held at least once a year for a screening of nerve damage and circulation.
- The retinal examination must be held once or twice a year in people with Diabetes Mellitus risk for the screening of eye problems.
- Blood sugar levels should be tested and compared during fasting and at any random hour of the day.
Explain how microvascular changes impact the retina. What changes there and how might it impact the individual’s vision?
The metabolic disease of Diabetes Mellitus impacts the tiny blood vessels in the light-sensitive layer of tissues present in the eyes called the retina because of too much sugar in the blood. Eyes attempt to develop new blood vessels in the back of each eye but they leak easily because of under-developed conditions due to Diabetes Mellitus. Microvascular changes in the retina due to Diabetes Mellitus and rising blood pressure lead to narrowing of the microvessels and they become wiggly and tortuous (Banasik, 2021).
Explain how microvascular changes impact the kidney. What changes there and how might it impact the individual’s renal function?
Kidneys are one of the organs that are affected due to diabetes due to microvascular changes that increase the thickness of the glomerular basement membrane leading to declining renal function. These changes contribute to progressive kidney failure when the retinal veins become narrower with worsening the Diabetes condition (Banasik, 2021).
What are the modifiable risk factors to best avoid neuropathic complications of DM?
The strong risk factor to develop neuropathic complications of Diabetes Mellitus depends on the patient’s length of time with a diabetic condition. Hyperglycemia is the modifiable risk factor that may be caused due to smoking, body mass index, hypertension, high triglycerides, etc. However, if a patient controls his/her blood sugar level tightly, the remission and cure can minimize the potential harm to the nerves and therefore glycaemic control can improve the quality of a diabetic patient’s life.
Banasik, J. L. (2021). Pathophysiology. (7th ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. US.