Human beings have to confront and undergo certain complex phenomena, among which sexuality is top ranking. Different individuals in society pose multiple sexual behaviors, perspectives, and identities. In this regard, a case is assigned to critically analyze with respect to different philosophical theories and perspectives, i.e., deontological and utilitarian perspectives. The case relates to twenty one years old Carlos. Having some bullet injuries on his body, he entitled to treatment in a hospital. His speedy recovery gave him an opportunity to leave for home, and his family should take good care of his health. Her sister was ready to take his care with immense pleasure. Meanwhile, the medical test reports declare him positive for a hideous disease, HIV. To make the picture clear, Carlos revealed that he is a homosexual and kept it a secret due to social, cultural, and religious pressure. The sexual behavior and tendency of a man is a personal matter. But any person needs confidentiality regarding strange and unusual sexual behavior like homosexuality. To disclose of such behavior and tragic disease like HIV is considered a shameful act in society, so people keep such relations secret and confidential. Homosexuality is advocated and criticized by a large number of people based on multiple arguments. But with respect to philosophical theories, the main argument in this analysis revolves around a deontological as well as a utilitarian perspective.
The utilitarian perspective deals with and advocates any action as moral and ethical if it provides a lot of happiness to a huge slot of people for their satisfaction. The freedom of actors to perform any action for their pleasure and joy is moral irrespective of the social practices, religious obligations, and cultural values. The main feature of this philosophical theory is “The Greatest Happiness Principle” (Udoudom, 2021). In this perspective, the homosexuality or same-sex relationship is moral and ethical as it gives immense pleasure to the partners. The same-sex partners, in this way, amused themselves according to their freedom, joy, and will.
However, the deontological perspective categorizes various actions as right or wrong based upon the set rules and regulations. According to this ethical theory, the actions are good if they follow the natural law and divine commands for the betterment of humanity (Grincevičienė et al., 2019). So in this regard, homosexuality is immoral and hideous action as it is unnatural. The stated theory of philosophy emphasizes the set of norms, values, and rules while considering any action as good or bad. Homosexuality or same-sex relationships are wrong (condemnable) as they are against the nature as well as social and cultural norms of almost every society around the globe.
The deontological theory with respect to homosexuality is agreeable according to my viewpoint as it considers natural actions good. The satisfaction and pleasure for persons cannot change the natural harmony of the universe. Sexual preferences and sexual relationships are the basic need of human beings, but they should be established abiding by some rules and regulations. The intuitive aspect concerning the innate behavior of humans depicts homosexuality as bad action and unnatural in the vicinity of humans. Meanwhile, the utilitarian theory is based on the fake concept of happiness and joy. As the happiness of a group may lead to the grief of another group. The deontological perspective, in this case, is the guarantee of the growth of human generation. The sexual relationship is not only a source of pleasure and happiness but also the only way to prolong human generation on the globe. In contrast, homosexuality can lead to the distinction of humanity from this planet. Further, homosexuality cannot establish a healthy society of humans, especially concerning gender roles. But utilitarian perspective cannot provide such bond instead of happiness of respective personals. Homosexuality is a prehistoric concept and remained a practice among humans, but society did not accept it as normal and natural. On the other hand, natural sexual relationships in the family bond prolong and last for partners’ lives. Satisfaction, love, and joy, according to the deontological perspective, are life-lasting. Furthermore, the medical aspect concerning human health has become a serious issue in present days. Various sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) like HIV, AIDS, Herpes Simplex, and Gonorrhea are numerously spreading due to unnatural sexual contact. The utilitarian perspective in the context of homosexuality has become a disease source for humans. In this regard, the deontological perspective saves humanity from these severe diseases. Similarly, the argument of the greatest happiness and joy claimed by the utilitarian perspective is very dangerous. Let suppose we consider this argument valid for a while that a group of people can perform any action for the sake of happiness and joy in society; this will promote and breed lawlessness in society. The crime rate will become high manifold as most criminals perform crimes to fulfill their happiness and joy. So, the deontological perspective is a realistic one.
Grincevičienė, V., Barevičiūtė, J., Asakavičiūtė, V., & Targamadzė, V. (2019). Equal Opportunities and Dignity as Values in the Perspective of I. Kant’s Deontological Ethics: The Case of Inclusive Education. Filosofija. Sociologija, 30(1).
Udoudom, M. (2021). The Value of Nature: Utilitarian Perspective. GNOSI: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Human Theory and Praxis, 4(1 (May)), 31-46.