Academic Master



The history of many countries is characterized by racial and ethical uniformity rather than diversity. Most of the national boundaries depicted religious, ethnic and linguistic homogeneity. Variety was at first considered as a liability until the 20th century when the perception changed to strength.

Societies and nations which were ethnically homogenous such as the modern Japan or ancient Germanic communities have an impression that they were inherently more secure and stable as compared to the alternatives such as imperial Rome and contemporary America. Most societies came up with terms intended to highlight their racial purities. In some instances “Raza” in Spanish, “Volk” in German and “Razza” in Italian are typically used to include ethnic essence rather than taking the role of shared language, residence or culture.

Many ethnic groups and culture depicted their suspicions on diversity through the use of pejorative nouns for the “other.” In the ancient Hebrew, the term “goyim” used to refer to all the non-Jewish states and people. Armenia used the term”Odar” in denoting the rest of the world which was not unethical to Armenia. Japanese used the word “Gaijin” in referring to people who by ethnicity, nationality and race cannot be accepted fully as Japanese. Any foreigner or non-native Spanish speaker would be called “Gringo” in the 18th century at Castilian Spain (SCHOEMAKER 97-102).

In the 20th century, the Balkan nations became the powder kegs in the world wars as various groups desired to change and mark their territorial borders reflecting different ethnicities. The objectives of Nazi Germany were to link all the German “Volk” into one broad linguistically and racially harmonious and homogenous “Reich” even if it would call for the destruction of the national borders of Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Poland. It is outlined in the Mexican constitution that the federal immigration laws and policies should not interfere or endanger Mexico’s ethnic structure (SCHOEMAKER 97-102).

Nations, both ancient and modern, that have made attempts to connect and unite various diverse tribes have achieved little success performing poorly. The Italian Roman Republic existed for almost 500 years. In contrast, the multiracial Roman Territory that ensured all the diverse cultures were treated equally after the Edict of Caracalla only lived for slightly more than two centuries marked by violence and conflicts. Deadly force and violence were used to keep the bickering cultural factions in shape and from killing one another as was the case with most of the sizeable ethnically broad empires such as the Ottomans, the Austro-Hungarians, and the Soviets. The modern nations such as the multi-tribal and multicultural Iraq, Rwanda, and Lebanon have consequently proved to be a failure. Europe has been making attempts in emulating the multiracial but unified ethics of the United States. However, the European Union may break itself by trying to assimilate and unite the millions of desperate migrants who are reluctant and hesitant to absorb fully (SCHOEMAKER 97-102).

America is history’s exception. It started as a nation founded by European migrants. Similar to homogenous citizens of most of other countries, they were seemingly on a trajectory in the assimilation of racial sameness as the affirmation of citizenship. However, the ultimate logic of the United State’s unique Constitution was varying and different. Therefore, America steadily evolved and changes to fit the definition of Americans according to their shared values and ethics rather than their superficial appearance. Eventually, every person was permitted to become an American so long as they agreed to shed off their earlier identities and embrace the newly developed American persona. The “melting pot” ethos of e Pluribus Unum has always been cherished and adopted in the United States as it mainly involves the blending of a variety of people and cultures into a single entity through integration, assimilation, and intermarriages (SCHOEMAKER 97-102).

America thrived as a result of specific approached and methods coupled with controlled and measured immigration. The diverse ethnic communities enriched and significantly impacted America with a variety of food, art, music, and literature while at the same time accepting an ordinary and necessary culture and ethics of America values, attributes, and institutions. Challenges sprung only after immigration was often illegalized, in mass, without making any emphasis on assimilation. At times towards the end of the 20th century, the United States primarily gave up and disregarded multiracialism under one primary ethnicity but instead opted for multiculturalism. Multiculturalism allowed each specific group or community to retain and observe their tribal norms and chauvinism always viewed itself as a separate from the whole entity.

There was a sudden popularity in the hyphenated names and words. Americans under constant track down by the government often complicate the ethnic lineage and structure. Racial quotas and pedigrees were at the time used in an entry in jobs and college admissions. The present discrimination was permitted by the courts as compensation for the prior perceptions. Difference and diversity were featured and taught in the schools’ syllabus in preference to unity and sameness. Langston Hughes and Edgar Allan Poe were categorized and grouped as “black” or “white male” rather than the “American” authors (SCHOEMAKER 97-102).

The current objection against homogenizing the various divergent races can be linked to the history of partiality and injustice. Even when it was not perfect, America’s unrealizable high ideals led to it being judged as subordinate. Nevertheless, history will be cruel to those who imagine America having different tribes and racial groups who are healthily competitive. The characteristics of the history of state multiculturalism are disagreement, breakdown, brutality, and disarray. What has made America the most high-powered country in the world is its ability to remain multiracial instead of multicultural? We must learn to accept that heterogeneity is an accessory, but the union is a strength.

The late eighteenth century witnessed the start of changes in the cultural set-up. This extended to the early nineteenth century. The revolution resulted in the formation of ‘separate spheres.’ It was as a result of various factors. One of them is the growth of the inspiration of the evangelical belief. It resulted in a rise of moral value in areas of female home life, religiosity and virtues. At this time, a man’s life entailed working and was very public. On the other hand, women were required to remain at home. There was a high expectation for a woman’s behavior. This came as a result of a change in the concepts of the female anatomy.

Previously, women were seen as just objects. They were also considered the weaker and less critical gender which was supposed to be ruled by the males. Their role was just to reproduce. Personality traits and their character gave them this position since they were considered harmful. They could therefore not make it well no matter their efforts in improving their lives since they were not allowed to gain in such ways as business and education. Men always looked for a way to push them down and oppressed them. However, with the revolution, a difference was created in the way they were being trodden. The belief that they were the most lustful was also fading away. They were therefore expected to be angels at home. The ones who failed to control their lust were criticized and considered as prostitutes (Galligan, 2008).

There were roles of men and women during this period were different regarding the social and legal aspects. The criterion used to define the functions was different in both characters. This time was dubbed the ‘Romantic Era.’ There was however not much of an achievement by the revolutionists who advocated for absolute gender equality to eliminate supremacy of males. The model of the Christian family confined all classes of women to the home surrounding. The rights and roles of either member of a married couple were very different from their partner’s despite them being considered as one. Any woman who lost her virginity before a matrimony was considered a castaway (MASON, 1988).

Women were therefore considered lesser beings as compared to men. A case example of this is that female author had to do their work under the name of a man so that they would not be disapproved by their gender. The role of men during this time was to support his family financially. They also had the right to vote whereas women were not allowed to do the same. Women were also expected to be very obedient to their spouses. If the lady got any income, it was channeled to the man since it was his property henceforth. This applied to any other things brought in by the lady during the marriage. There was an aspect in which women were objectified. This was demonstrated by the activity in which the woman would give the man a certain amount of money as a way of showing gratitude for being taken. The rights of custody of children were solely for men.

The industrial revolution came in as a significant relief to women. They were incorporated into the labor force from their former activities of the home area. This went a long way in the revolution for gender equality. This was through the recognition for work done by women. They also started getting income from their work. This further led to the campaign for an equal pay through collective bargaining. The ‘Romantic Era’ saw the significant change in the roles, especially those of women. They were able to get out of their homes, where they were previously performing duties, into the industrial activities. This was a stepping stone for them to start being treasured and appreciated for the work they did.The revolution in culture amongst the Europeans came at about this time. It was caused by the rise in consumerism as well as the increase in the power of the middle class. This brought about economic changes (Galligan, 2008). These changes presented gaps that the women would fill to indulge in economic activities more directly. It was, however ‘not right’ for a woman to know too much when it came to business matters.

The change in women’s lifestyle led to them getting an education. They, therefore, gained reading and writing skills. This helped them in the development of education-related activities such as becoming writers and authors. Many women rose in such fields during this period. The education of women was however considered to be the one that taught them on domestic roles and social activities. Further training was not supported since its purpose was just to give the woman a better womanhood.There are some who were lucky enough to attain a level of education similar to that of men.Their rights, however, were still being passed on to their husbands upon marriage although some few alterations were made to this over time.

The educated women started advocating for the equal access to education for both genders. There was also a debate on the marriage laws since they heavily favored the men. This, however, did not favor the women as much as expected. Women have over time fought for equality, and sometimes for supreme power higher than men’s. This happens all over the world. Some prominent women led others in fighting for their justice since the 18th Century. They, however, met a lot of challenges, including execution (Bland, 1979). Madame Roland is an excellent example in this case. She was executed after being charged with treason. She had been advocating for the rights of her fellow women in France. Women have continued speaking out against the traditional roles and gender inequality in justice systems. They have been doing so through actively participating in writing and being activists.

The late 20th Century experienced a continuation of the revolution. There has been a change in the way people perceive the roles according to gender.There is a notable change in the 21st Century since then. Many women have taken up different professional careers and have gained an education. Many people now feel that the household income should be raised by both the man and the woman. There is, therefore, need for the woman to work. There has been a massive evolution of the roles and rights of women as compared to the eighteenth and twentieth century. This has taken time to cultivate, and the struggle continues since there is still a gap between men and women up to date. Statistics have revealed that participation of women in governance acts as a predictor of peace. In nations and countries where women are empowered across a variety of spheres, the states have less likelihood of going to war or conflicting with their neighbors.

Women have an extensive history in the military though not always in a uniform. For instance, in 1799 the first female soldier received her early pension due to her services during the civil war. The first women who ever enlisted in the military joined the United States Marine Corps reserves and after that woman was seen taking up combat roles for the first time. Women continued to take up combat roles without any fear, and as years went by, they began taking up leadership position like Warrant Officer. In 1967, a group of women was ordered to a combat zone in Vietnam for the first time (Bland, 1979).

Over the years, women did play a large part in the success of armed forces, and this resulted in the Defense Department lifting all gender-based rules on military services beginning in 2016. This move opened not only job opportunities for women in the military but also duty positions, promotion opportunities and schools were ready to accept women. Wilson argues that this move only meant that all women currently in the service and all recruits were going to be allowed to work in any military job of their preference as long as they meet the required gender-neutral standards and any other requirement (Bland, 1979).

In summary, our modern world has opened job to women regardless of what people say or view this move. Time is the only thing that will tell if women are fit to work in various fields such as combat which has been dominated by their male counterparts. Despite the fact that women making good combat soldiers don’t necessarily mean it is necessary or practical. However, what matters most is that the mission is successfully conducted with or without women in the force. As Eden (2013)says, accepting women in the armed forces is based on the ideology and not the actual necessity for women in the military.

Work Cited

Bland, Sidney and Patricia Branca. “Women In Europe Since 1750”. The History Teacher 12.2 (1979): 303. Web.

SCHOEMAKER, CASPER. “A Critical Appraisal Of The Anorexia Statistics Inthe Beauty Myth: Introducing Wolf’s Overdo And Lie Factor (WOLF).” Eating Disorders 12.2 (2004): 97-102. Web.

Galligan, Y. and S. Clavero. “Prospects For Women’s Legislative Representation In Postsocialist Europe: The Views Of Female Politicians.” Gender & Society 22.2 (2008): 149-171. Web.

“Gender, Sexuality, And Power In Latin America Since Independence.” Choice Reviews Online 45.03 (2007): 45-1750-45-1750. Web.

MASON, K. O., and Y.-H. LU. “ATTITUDES TOWARD WOMEN’s FAMILIAL ROLES:: Changes In The United States, 1977-1985”. Gender & Society 2.1 (1988): 39-57. Web.



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