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Health Care, Medical

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Introduction

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is commonly used as an umbrella term to represent a specific type of progressive disease in the lungs. These include diseases such as emphysema, refractory asthma, chronic bronchitis, and other forms that relate to medical conditions of bronchiectasis. One of the major indications of having COPD is suggested through the apparent condition in which an individual suffers an alarming rate of being breathless. Presently, COPD has become one of the leading issues in the health sector and is categorized and ranked as the fourth deadliest cause of death in the United States. The leading causes of COPD, with the identification of the symptoms according to each type, causes, and diagnosis and treatment, will be discussed in future.

Discussion

For years, researchers have been looking into the commonly occurring causes of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Numerous research has been conducted to identify the common grounds for elements that influence this, such as environmental factors or habits. Being one of the highest causes of death reasons found in the United States and is becoming a leading concern for the health and Medical Science field.

Aetiology

A leading study into the causes of COPD has identified smoking to be one of the chief reasons for it. The findings of the study revealed that around 40-70% of cases found for COPD normally accelerate, with the effects being influenced by stages that exhibit symptoms of dysfunctions of cilia, increased inflammation, and injury caused by oxidation. Other common sources of COPD are heightened air pollution levels or occupational exposure to such environments. An important factor in the case of the pathogenesis of COPD is associated with increased levels of oxidative stress, causing an imbalance of anti-proteinases and proteinases.

Types

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is implied as the symbolic representation of an umbrella that encompasses two sub-types under it, i.e. Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema. Chronic Bronchitis is identified through the symptoms of an individual developing a long-term cough with mucus being shown in it. Emphysema, in comparison to Chronic Bronchitis, exhibits symptoms with gradually increasing damage to the lungs examined over time.

Causes

The observed causes of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease are related to the actual and generalized issue of an individual being exposed to high levels of irritants found excessively in areas with air pollution. Commonly noticed issues are industrial exposures, which expose a person to chemical fumes and industrialized clouds of dust (Halbert 2006). Another common issue is preterm birth, which eventually leads to the lungs being damaged over time. Inherited genes are another cause of this as well.

Diagnosis

To properly diagnose treatment for COPD, it is necessary for the doctor to properly evaluate the patient to identify and compare the apparent symptoms with those seen in COPD. The doctor normally evaluates this through a series of questions to help them identify the symptoms, a proper analysis of the patient’s health history and medical records and conducting a series of exams to see the extent of the symptoms (Celli et al., 2004). Spirometry is normally the ideal way through which COPD is treated and is quite useful for locating it before it either spreads further or before it develops.

Conclusion

There are numerous factors that give birth to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, while it is a general term used to define two sub-types of it, such as Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema. Each type bearing different symptoms and causes has a properly identified diagnosis and treatment for it. Spirometry is normally the ideal way through which COPD is treated and is quite useful for locating it. Developing an understanding and an awareness of the disease and its leading causes is crucial for clarifying the essentials of bringing about a change in the environment.

References

Celli, B. R., MacNee, W. A. T. S., Agusti, A. A. T. S., Anzueto, A., Berg, B., Buist, A. S., … & Fein, A. (2004). Standards for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COPD: a summary of the ATS/ERS position paper. European Respiratory Journal, 23(6), 932-946.

Halbert, R. J., Natoli, J. L., Gano, A., Badamgarav, E., Buist, A. S., & Mannino, D. M. (2006). Global burden of COPD: systematic review and meta-analysis. European Respiratory Journal, 28(3), 523-532.

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