Counseling is a broader term refers to the process of assisting an individual by providing proper guidance, exploring solutions for the problems he or she is facing, and moral support. Career counseling focuses on an understanding of a person, his skills, abilities, interests, as well as the work trends. This information is used as a foundation for making an informed decision about professional and educational careers. It is used to manage a diverse range of problems, for instance, poor time management, trust issues, lack of concentration, motivation, and commitments. Moreover, it can help a person to build trust and a worthy relationship with its families such as parents, children, and spouses. There are many theories and techniques used to understand career counseling in better ways. Here we will discuss the essential elements of career counseling processes and methods. A career counselor needs to have essential knowledge and skills to help people and solve their long term problems. While career development refers to manage the career of a person within the organization or among different organizations. For career development, a person would need proper training, skills, and attitude to accept higher responsibilities, and accept new challenges.
It could be both in the organization and moving to different organizations to avail of better opportunities. Here we will discuss theories related to career development and the holistic approach of career development. There are many theories that discussed this process, however, we will highlight the holistic approach and through career construction theory. This theory states that how a person chooses and uses work. It presents the vocational behavior of a person across the life cycle and the methods and materials which are used to make choices regarding an individual’s career and personal development. Vocational personality means the abilities, skills, needs, interests, and values of a person related to his or her career. The personality of a person also influenced by his career, for instance, a police officer develops a more strict personality both in his professional and personal life. While a doctor or other health-related professionals are found soft-hearted, kind and caring.
Being a teacher I have set my own career goals, and focused on my career development, though there were certain hurdles and challenges in the initial career level, however with the passage of time I gained experience and certain skills which have raised my career to the next level. Leadership skills are an important skill for a good teacher, besides that, strong communication skill is required for a good teacher (Hearne & Galvin, 2015). I have learned different skills and polished my behavior accordingly during my job and training conducted by the school for its teachers.
The holistic approach of career development will be highlighted to learn about the process and techniques involved in career development. Holistic means that there are more to our lives than alone our career, and our career is not limited to earning a living (Zunker, 2015). A career has a deep influence on our lifestyle, behavior, status, our family, and community. All human beings are seeking to do some meaningful work in life to feed their souls, and accept challenges to learn and feed their mind (Ismail et al., 2016). There are certain external factors as well which can influence our careers such as our family, culture, labor market, and our economic conditions. There is a strong connection between mind and body, and how our thoughts can influence our reactions inside our body and our decisions. In the holistic approach, we recognize how our decision can affect ourselves and our dependents in both negative and positive ways. Career counseling practitioners can help their clients to work and live more holistically. We are part of a system, and our system is a part of a larger system, and all these systems are interconnected. There are four basic needs which every employee is seeking to fulfill, such as the physical, mental, spiritual, and emotional need. When these needs are met, it will produce fruitful results in terms of job satisfaction, loyalty, optimism, and higher engagement. Here we will discuss some holistic approaches which can help an individual to pursue their career development.
Finding a new job which we are passionate about, and which can give us meaning and good for our soul. In our dream jobs, we are more satisfied and can produce better results. A person who has an interest in teaching, so in the banking sector or corporate sector he can not execute his better services. It can give a sense of connection and purpose.
Participate in physical activities
Physical activities have a positive impact on our career development and our professional career. Because it can reduce our stress level, reduce the risk of diseases, increase our energy, and boost our mood. A physically fit person can perform better, and produce better results for the organization. Most of the organizations prefer a physically fit person for promotion and hiring, and they believe that a healthy person has more health issues and laziness.
Professional development and learning
A person should continue the process of learning new skills that can benefit the organization. It can not only feed the mind but also assists our clients to strengthen their careers. The promotions and career development depend upon our learning and commitment.
In the holistic approach, we consider a person as a whole, not one aspect of his life but consider the whole system associated with that person. We analyze how much core needs are met and also consider external driving forces. Career is a broader term, which is synonymous with the job and occupation, it represents all the facets and roles of the life of a person. All the individuals have a career, and the career of a person could be by choice or due to some external forces. Career development is a long process and it takes years and decades. However, a person can achieve more success when he is clear about his future plan and goals. Career development is a unique process that can vary from person to person. If there are two-person with the same qualification, they would have set different goals, and they would have different priorities related to their professional and personal lives.
It depends on a person and he can play an active role to construct his career. The attitude of a person can influence his career and the way he is committed to his career. Paid employment is one of the important elements of a career, and it is an essential consideration when we have an opportunity. However, in the long run, the salary is not the only factor which can influence our decision and keep us motivated. So a good work environment, learning opportunity, other benefits are important factors that can influence our decision to change our existing organization. It is a long term process of managing work, learning new skills and abilities and leisure to move toward a personally determined future.
Career development is explained by various theories, however, none of these theories have explained the complexity of this field. The theory of content is important in this regard, it refers to the trait and factor tradition which is used to determine the influences on career development. For instance, factors such as abilities, interests, values, and personality have a greater influence on our career path and our professional career. There are certainly broader and macro influences such as geographic location, socio-economic conditions, and the market trend, however, these factors had received little interest.
Career construction theory was proposed by Savickas, it focuses on how people use theory vocational personality to get a sequence of changes in job and be faithful to oneself and being recognized by others (Chan et al., 2015). I am a maths teacher, I had started my career after getting a masters degree in this subject, and got a job in a school ten years back. I was a junior teacher and I was supposed to assist a senior teacher. I had limited authority, my salary was low, and there were the least opportunities in that school for me. I spent three years there as per my initial job agreement I have completed that tenure. I got another opportunity where I was hired as a senior teacher, and I was provided a chance to teach higher classes. I continued that job for the next five years where I had achieved many milestones, and my salary, skills, and learning were soared. According to this theory, the focus is on occupational choice and work adjustment which interrogates various aspects of the vocational behavior. The career construction theory refers to the people who build their careers by implementing meaning in their vocational behaviors. The life theme of this theory addresses the fundamental factor of work-life and it focuses on the reason for certain vocational behavior. It emphasizes on the interpersonal processes through which people impose meaning on their vocational behavior.
Chan, K. Y., Uy, M. A., Moon-ho, R. H., Sam, Y. L., Chernyshenko, O. S., & Yu, K. Y. T. (2015). Comparing two career adaptability measures for career construction theory: Relations with the boundaryless mindset and protean career attitudes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 87, 22-31. edition). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Hearne, L., & Galvin, J. (2015). The role of the regular teacher in a whole school approach to guidance counselling in Ireland. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 43(2), 229-240.
Ismail, S., Ferreira, N., & Coetzee, M. (2016). Young emerging adults’ graduateness and career adaptability: Exploring the moderating role of self-esteem. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 26(1), 1-10.
Zunker, V. G. (2015). Career Counseling: A Holistic Approach . (9’th