Academic Master


Canadian Air Transport Industry Research Paper

Federal legislation

1.1 Background

The government was responsible for operating the airports in Canada before 1994. The National Airport Policy than privatized the airlines that resulted in deregulation of the industry. The airports in at national or territorial levels were responsible for carrying 200,000 passengers across the country. Canadian air transport industry transformed from single seller monopolistic firm (Trans-Canada airlines) to virtually deregulated industry. The growth in demand for the air carriers during the 1970s played a significant role in bringing the change. The evolution in the industry was the result of increased competition and high domestic demand. Another factor that resulted in the evolution was the deregulation of the US airline industry (Bruno, 2015). The National Transportation Act (1987) remains one of the prominent events that contributed towards the growth of aviation industry. The economic regulations of the 1970s acted in favor of the competition, allowing more companies to enter in air transport industry. Air Canada Act operated under principles of due regard to sound business and contemplation of profit. The Air Canada Act emerged after removing various restrictions on the transcontinental services provided by the CP air carrier. Deregulation in the US during 1978 also influenced the air aviation industry in Canada. Domestic Air Carrier Policy in 1982 emphasized on continuing regulations with the aim of increasing competition. Liberalizing air transport allowed carriers to compete on routes across Canada. The policy allowed companies to offer air travel across broader areas (Clougherty, Dresner, & Oum, 2001). Changes in the legislative framework occurred in 1985 under the title of ‘Freedom to Move.’ National Transportation Act was responsible for the sweeping changes in the industry. The main changes during the period include a decline in economic regulations, increased reliance on market forces for achieving competitive prices and broader services. The legislation opened an opportunity for all new entrants who fulfilled the criteria of fit, willing and able. The requirements emphasized on adequate liability insurance coverage for the carriers becoming part of the air travel industry. The legislation also focused on public convenience and necessity that instructed companies to enhance service and quality (Kaps & Phillips, 2004).

The Federal Minister of Transport takes care of the matters related to aviation in Canada. To govern aviation, the minister uses the principles of Aeronautics Act and Canada Transportation Act (CTA). Canadian Aviation Security Regulation (2012) has a vital role in governing civil aviation. Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) regulate certification of air carriers and airports under operational standards. The licensing of aviation personnel and accreditation also works under the CARs. The regulation of CARs are also involved in designing operational standards. Measures regarding screening of passengers and safety requirements for aircraft is the responsibility of the Canadian Aviation Security Regulations. The minister of Transport has the responsibility of dealing with the issues related to the federally regulated modes including air, marine, and rail. The Minister also takes an active role in taking decisions regarding aeronautical authority and quasi-judicial tribunal under the power of Supreme Court (ICLG, 2018).

1.2 Operating license

The airline companies to operate needs operating license as mentioned by CTA in section 57. The law does not allow companies to operate unless they hold a license. Under section 59 the companies cannot market or sell in Canada without a license. The agency is responsible for issuing a license for both domestic and international service. The carrier applies to the initial stage for obtaining domestic and international schedule and non-schedule services. The companies cannot operate at national or international levels when they do not hold a license. The section 55 of the CTA mentions, “a Canadian citizen or permanent resident within the meaning of section 2(1) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, a government in Canada or an agent of such a government or a corporation or other entity that is incorporated or formed under the laws of Canada or a province that is in fact controlled by Canadians” (ICLG, 2018). The company giving airline services needs to have possession of Canadian aviation document, one of the necessary conditions of the license. Prescribed liability insurance is another prerequisite depending on the service carrier. The entities need to fulfill the financial requirements for operating. Non-Canadian carriers are allowed to hold the license only when the Minister allows them and also it is in public interest. The agency does not allow a foreign entity to hold license when it is against the public interest (ICLG, 2018).

The conditions that allow non-Canadian carriers to hold license include;

  • The foreign government designates the entity to operate internationally, and it holds a license of carrier operations.
  • The entity fulfills the conditions of a bilateral agreement allowing them to operate at international level.
  • The document that foreign government issues must be equal to schedule and non-schedule international service license.
  • It must hold the Canadian Foreign Air Operation certificate.
  • Prescribes liability insurance is also mandatory for the foreign carriers.

1.3 Legislation of air safety

Transport Canada takes the keen interest in the air safety of carriers and ensures that the airlines provide secure and safe travel to the passengers. Aeronautics Act remains the central authority taking care of the safety measures and all decisions that maximize passengers’ safety. Canadian Transportation Accident Investigation and Safety Board Act (CITAISB) plays the vital role in eliminating the risks of hazardous effects or accidents. Canadian Transportation Accident Investigation and Safety Board (CTSB) passes regulations and establish principles that control the adversities related to the airlines. CTSB acts as an independent agency and is involved in conducting investigations that uncover the safety-related issues and security deficiencies. The agency makes recommendations to the Transport Canada regarding the weaknesses of carriers and suggesting areas needing attention. TC acts on the suggestions of CTSB and attempts to eliminate them in best possible manner. Canadian Criminal Code prohibits airline companies from engaging in unsafe practices or neglecting the safety standards. The entities national or international commits offenses when they are unable to operate according to the safety conditions. Heavy fines and imprisonment are common penalties for the offenses. In Canada, the legislature does not regulate air safety separately for commercial, cargo or private carriers. Each carrier has to follow similar rules and regulations to operate in the air industry. However, the legislature regulates charter separately for commercial, cargo, and private carriers. The regulation of terms and conditions is in control of Air Transportations Regulations (ATRs) and CTA. The conditions remain same for the international and charter carriers (Clougherty, Dresner, & Oum, 2001).

1.4 Legislation of limitations

The legislature reserves domestic carriers in case of transportation of goods and passengers carried between two points in Canada. Canada-US Open Skies allow international cargo services to operate at any point between two countries. The taxation legislature gives relaxation to the international carriers, operating in Canada (Clougherty, Dresner, & Oum, 2001). They are not restricted to pay Canadian income tax because they have origins in the US or other countries (Bruno, 2015). The carriers use grants of home jurisdiction to avail relief in Canada Similar conditions hold for the customs duties, taxes or inspection fee. The Canadian legislature provides relief to the international carriers in case of;

  • Baggage cargo, mail, aircraft, regular equipment and spare parts including oils, fuels, lubricants, and engines.
  • The exclusion also includes maintenance and repairing fee.

1.5 Imposition of conditions on flying carriers

The airports also impose restrictions on the flying carrier white the main features include;

  • Landing payment and parking fee vary according to the airport authority.
  • Pre-security fee for operating carrier.
  • Security deposit used for the provision of financial security including letter or credit and pre-payment of aeronautical charges.
  • The carrier is also responsible for paying airport improvement fee from the fee collected from passengers.
  • Executing agreements, leases and licenses for airport facilities are also part of the legislature.
  • Introduction of new services and destinations qualifies for a reduction in tariff and fees from the airport authority.

1.6 Legislature of air accidents

CTAISB is the responsible authority for taking control of the accidents and other incidents associated with the air traveling. The agency restricts carriers to report incidents on an immediate basis. The carrier is responsible for the mishap when a person sustains injury or death resulting from the fault of the carrier. The conditions of a penalty imply on any carrier when the passenger becomes a victim of the jet blast or comes into direct contact with the jet. The carrier is responsible for causing harm or damage to the passenger. The carrier is also faulty when the passenger becomes a victim of rotor downwash or propeller wash. Air operator emergency response is also mandatory for the air carriers. CARs make it compulsory under section 705 (2)(1) that the air carriers need to notify the accidents controlling agency about the incident. The section emphasizes that the carriers must develop an emergency response plan that allows the staff to act in the best possible manner when they perceive risks. The carriers are responsible for welfare and crew and passengers and taking adequate measures that minimize the risks of accidents or mishaps. CARs restrict carriers to conduct investigations and uncover the factors responsible for the incident. The investigation involves assessing the response of the air operating team against site accident. Preservation of evidence related to the incident is also the responsibility of the carriers. They must provide information regarding claims and insurance procedures. The carriers engage in providing adequate training to the staff for acting in emergency situations (ICLG, 2018).

1.7 Legislature on aircraft trading, finance, and leasing

Ownership registration is a prerequisite for the Canadian Civil Aircraft Registry to contain proof or registry. CARs in sections 202.13(2) and 202.35 emphasize that each entity and individual must have legal custody and control of the aircraft. The aircraft operating in Canadian territory must be registered in the country. The aircraft cannot operate if it lacks registry as the controlling authority does not give permission. The Canadian Civil Aircraft Register obtains proof of legal custody and control of aircraft, registered in Canada. Without legal ownership, the aircraft cannot operate in the country (ICLG, 2018).

1.8 Legislation on mortgages

A national registry for maintaining records of the security interest does not exist while a Personal Property Security Act (PPSA) operates in nine provinces. PPSA has a vital role in providing Moveable Legal Rights to the carriers of all kinds after confirming that the entities fulfill safety requirements. Civil Code of Quebec identifies the necessary conditions of security that protect the passengers and their lives. In case of Cape Town Convention and Protocol Canada is contracting state leading to enactment of international Interest in Mobile Equipment Act (ICLG, 2018).

1.9 Financer needs

The financer needs awareness of aircraft operations while carriers cannot operate without national registry in the region. The security interest is important for the aircraft in each province and territory (TC, 2018).

1.10 Tax legislature

The acquisition and deposition of aircraft involve tax consequences when the owner of the aircraft wants to resale it. The seller has to pay value-added tax when he intends to sale the aircraft. The craft owner individual or corporation needs to pay taxes according to t the jurisdiction. The purchase of aircraft and its use for business activities depicts need for paying taxes. The tax jurisdiction emphasizes on deducting capital cost allowance after considering the capital assets of the company. The subsequent sale of aircraft also makes the owner liable for paying taxes on the selling price and underappreciated capital cost. Common taxes that the entity is liable for paying to include Goods and Services Tax (GST), provincial sales tax (PST), Quebec sales tax (QST) and harmonized sales tax (HST) (TC, 2018).

1.11 Litigation and dispute resolution

It uncovers the remedies available to the creditors under the Canadian law. The jurisdiction emphasizes on statutory rights to apply at senior court. Section 9(1) of Airport Transport ensures that the owner obtains an order of the court. The financier of aircraft has the option available for self-help that varies according to the territories. The courts provide the option of the true lease to the lessor for retaining service of baliff and seize aircraft according to the conditions of the lease. Canadian aviation does not designate courts for the handling of disputes in Canada. The supreme courts do not set the monetary limits or claims. Federal courts hold more power in resolving the disputes that arise in case of carriers of aircraft owners. The service requirements change according to the courts of provinces and levels (ICLG, 2018).

1.12 Jurisdictions for remedies

The courts in Canada provide different jurisdiction remedies to the defendant who suffers loss or damage. When the party who claims damages, proves the responsibility of the aircraft the court imposes penalties on the owner, individual or corporation. The successful party that recovers some expenses that allow them to cover losses involved in the lawsuit. The expenses cover the losses faced by victims in the form of full reimbursement, disbursement and experts fee. In case of legal tariff, fee is also applicable under jurisdiction. The law offer remedies on an interim basis involving injunctions that refrains party from performing certain acts such as freezing assets, interim judgments. The commercial agreements contain terms that parties require for proceeding to arbitration for resolution of disputes arising under the agreement. Parties in disputes incorporate provincial legislation into the agreements for establishing an appropriate forum for arbitration leading to quasi-judicial powers responsible for final and binding decisions. Arbitration grants interim relief when justified while arbitrations award injunctive relief. Under common provincial laws, the lower or tribunal court holds power to hear the appeals. Leave to appeal is not mandatory in case of ordinary appeal (ICLG, 2018).

1.13 Jurisdiction for commercial and regulatory issues

The Commissioner of Competition has the responsibility of viewing issues related to joint ventures and alliance agreement. The Competition Act emphasizes on eliminating anti-competition practices that add to the power of few sellers. Jurisdiction sets conditions for an alliance between two or more airlines. The proposed legislation allows joint ventures to coordinate items for scheduling and pricing certain routes. The proposed legislation involves the provision of notice to the Minister of Transport and Commissioner of Competition. The assigned authorities take notice of the issue and follow the drafted guidelines (CABAA, 2015).

  1. General aviation industry

2.1 Defining general aviation industry

General aviation indicates small aircraft with 2 to 18 seats that are ideal for Canada. The idea of small jets is more useful for countries like Canada due to the presence of many towns and communities. The aviation industry in Canada represents a strong history as the industry developed significantly throughout years. Federal legislation does not provide an official definition of general aviation. The traditional definition of general aviation according to Canadian Owner-Pilot Association (COPA) is, “an umbrella term used for all civil aviation operations that are not scheduled air services, or unscheduled air services for hire.” Military or air operations are not part of general aviation; it also excludes air cadets that acquire training on general aviation aircraft. General aviation involves huge airplanes, pilots, and operations. Aviation has the direct impact on the economy, employment. It emphasizes on improving workers productivity, enhances customer service and improves supply chain operations. Another definition of general aviation states, “business aviation may be perceived as a corporate perquisite for executives who want to avoid commercial airlines. This perception, however, incorrectly misses the many uses of aircraft to meet the needs for fast, flexible, safe, secure and cost-effective access to small and remote destinations that may be impossible to reach by commercial air and even ground transportation” (CABAA, 2015).

2.2 Aircraft in Canada

The aircraft industry in Canada operates throughout the country while majority exists in British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, and Quebec. There is the concentration of membership in provinces and territories. Aviation businesses have a profound role in the aviation industry including conduction of operations. The ATRs and CTA allow air carriers to provide air services after acquiring the license from Canadian Transportation Agency (Bruno, 2015). The list of services identified by general aviation under section 56 (1) of CTA include;

  • Air advertising services
  • Aerial reconnaissance and survey services
  • Air fire-fighting and sight seeking services
  • Aerial weather and spreading services
  • Air cushion vehicle services
  • Air inspection and construction services
  • Air flight training services
  • Air spraying and forest management services
  • Aircraft demonstration and gilder towering services
  • Services for retrieving human organs

2.3 Private and commercial sectors

General aviation industry involves both private and commercial operations. The statistics of 2016 reveals that the number of registered general aircraft in Canada are 32,329. The identified aircrafts weighs below 12,500 lbs. General aviation defines that the aircraft are capable of holding private, state or commercial registration. Private registration is for individual, recreation and employee transportation. The main purpose of private registration is for the use of business. Commercial registration is for people or corporations who operate under the Air Operator Certificate (AOC). The aircraft need to fulfill regulatory standards for meeting operational needs. Government aircraft require state registration. The facts depict that in general aviation industry 83% of aircraft operate under private registration. Only 15% aircrafts enjoy commercial registration and 2% state registration (CABAA, 2015).

General aviation industry promotes sustaining public infrastructure and making airports powerful engines of growth for the country. Municipalities take an active role in administrating airports. The airports do not handle schedule and non-schedule services but rely on providers of air service such as flight schools and small aviation businesses. Airports in many cases rely on private aviation for ensuring sustainability of balance sheet. The general aviation industry is one of the significant contributors to the economy as it affects GDP. The statistics released by COPA regarding general aviation identifies 18.510 direct operations of aircraft, providing full-time employment to the huge population with wages estimated as $1.4 billion. The business operations of aviation industry contributed $2.2 billion to GDP in 2016. The economic output generated from the industry is $5.4 billion that contributes to the national economy. General aviation sector provides substantial tax revenues to governments at different levels constituting approximately $539 million. Majority taxes (69%) were collected by federal government estimated as $371 million. The employers and employees associated with the aviation industry pay taxes different forms including personal income tax, employment tax, and corporate income tax. The tax collected from the aviation sector also contributes to CPP. Total tax amount received by the provinces and municipalities constitute $154 million and $14 million (Kaps & Phillips, 2004).

General aviation industry plays the vital role in economic stability and growth as CABAA identifies direct impact factors including increased employment. The sector employs 11,500 people each year that contributes to the economic output of $3.2 billion annually. CABAA determines the strength of the aviation industry as it mentions, “the ongoing operations of business aviation in Canada annually generate an estimated 11,500 direct person years of employment, with employees earning approximately $810 million in wages and salaries” (CABAA, 2015). The annual taxation impacts also uncover the positive side of the aviation industry. The federal government collects 68% of the total revenues from aviation industry while the share of provincial government is 30% and municipal government is 2%. The facts indicate that general aviation remains the prominent contributor to country’s strong financial standing (CABAA, 2015).

  1. Airline Certification

Transport Canada issues airline certificates to the aircraft and carriers that ensures that the commercial air companies comply regulations of the aviation industry. The carriers need to apply for the certification. Aviation inspector investigates that the applicant’s operations follow the standards of the industry. The initial step involves applying for the air service provider that initiates the investigation of the operational capacity and financial stability. The issuing of the certificate depends on the worthiness of airline, licensing and personal training, crew and flight manuals and scheduled point of service. Canadian Aviation Regulation (SOR 96-43) defines the criteria for regulations and activities of aeronautics. Company’s aviation facilities, proposed facilities, and personnel must meet the standards defined by the agency. Canadian Aviation Regulations highlights the requirements for attaining certification (Bruno, 2015).

3.1 National aircraft certification

The certification allows aircraft to operate according to the standards presented by the Transport Company. Certifications are perquisites for the aircraft designs, avionics, and structures. Certification is crucial for the company for electrical and mechanical systems. Aircraft pursuant obtain certificates for equipment and power plants (CAC, 2011).

3.2 Responsibilities

The certificate defines the responsibilities of the aircraft owner; individual or corporation as follows;

  • Promulgating functional direction for carrying operations in Canada.
  • Conduction of certification and safety in case of foreign aircraft operator.
  • Conducting inspections including in-flight and operator based, confirming that the entity fulfills the certification requirements.
  • Drafting of directions for air service that complies with the conditions of NAFTA.
  • Approval for overflights and technical landings in case of foreign commercial aircraft that does not obtain Canadian Foreign Air Operator Certificate (FAOC).
  • Communications with foreign civil aviation authority and coordinating with Canadian departments and agencies.
  • Involvement in seminars and working group activities that has a direct impact on the training and education of personnel.
  • Provision of assistance requested under foreign civil aviation authority.

3.3 Aeronautics Act of CAR

The Act sets the conditions that the aircraft corporation needs to comply with attaining the certificate. The Act mentions, “no person shall operate an aircraft in Canada unless the person complies with the conditions in a Canadian foreign air operator certificate issued to that person by the Minister under Section 701.07.” (TC, 2018).

3.4 ICAO

The certification demands that the aircraft corporation has competent staff that is capable of operating efficiently and taking timely decisions. ICAO standards ensure that the staff fulfills the credentials having adequate training and skills for performing airline operations. It also states that the aircraft must be maintained according to the defined standards. Transportation industry and licensing states that obtaining license form transportation agency remains one of the challenging tasks of the process involve clear investigation of the aircraft and the equipment (TC, 2018).

3.5 Foreign air operator certification

Minister issues the terms and conditions of FAOC that the foreign air operators need to comply. The chief and foreign inspection division are responsible for discharging the responsibility. Foreign inspection division mandate remains an essential part of exercising responsibility (Kaps & Phillips, 2004). Fulfilling Aeronautics Act and CARs allow the operator to fulfill requirements of certification. Foreign inspection division mandate exercises responsibility delegated to the chief of inspection division. ICAO convention emphasizes on other person’s right for regulating aircraft (TC, 2018).

3.6 Certification process

The applicant goes through the certification process that starts for the submission of the application according to the directions contained in the letter. The letter identifies that the applicant completed the documentation (Kaps & Phillips, 2004).

Inspection requirements

The application receives certificate only when the inspection turns in favor of the aircraft authority. Necessary documents include;

  • Certificate of competency issued after Civil Aviation Authority’s approval.
  • Issued copy of the operator’s authority by the state, allowing aircraft to provide air service.
  • Complete details of company’s operational manual.
  • Approval page for minimum equipment list.
  • Certificate of airworthiness was confirming that the company is capable of engaging in safe operations.
  • Certificate of registration that allows the company to operate in Canadian territory.
  • Certificate of maintenance ensuring that the applicant has safe and functional aircraft and equipment, capable of carrying passengers safely. It gives information about the maintenance checks.
  • Certification charges and cost recovery details.

3.7 Inspections

Inspections remain one of the challenging and important phases of the certification process. In the phase, the applicants are subject to operations and maintenance. Inspection starts as CAA receives the notice. Inspection covers the areas of flight operations, cabin safety, and aircraft maintenance. All inspections are conducted depending on the cost recovery of the applicants (TC, 2018).

3.8 Role of CAA

CAA has the vital role in the process of investigations as the suggestions influence the decision of awarding certification. In this step, the standards and procedures lead to certification of national operators. It confirms maintenance of oversight programs and approvals for national operators to conduct air services (ICLG, 2018).

3.9 Safety oversight

FOAC holders are capable of conducting operations in the airline industry as they meet required standards. Risk management process reveals possible risks associated with the operating authority (TC, 2018). Common risk identification involve;

  • Evidence related to unsafe operational practices that exhibit weaknesses of the company.
  • Issuing letter to the FOCA authority after advertising safety deficiency. Highlighting the remedial actions in the document. The foreign inspection division has authority to suggest future actions. Surveillance activities are part of the investigation process.
  • Taking actions against foreign air operator involving conditions related to the FOCA suspension or other flaws. It can also result in cancelation of FOCA.
  • When the pursuant face threats to safety he can detain aircraft. The company in such cases needs to notify the registry (TC, 2018).
  1. International aviation

Canadian aviation has a strong presence in different countries including America and European Union. Air transport is involved in trade activities between Canada and other leading countries of the world. The association with different countries adds to the resources of the country. Safety, security, and efficiency remain prominent features of the Canadian international aviation making it one of the most developed across the world. Innovation and technology allowed the aviation authority to expand business and operate in other parts of the world (Bruno, 2015). The canada-us binational corporation allows Canada to conduct air business in the partner country. The operations in America improved the international standing of Canadian aviation due to the provision of quality service. It manages to compete with the other aviation internationally. The facts depict an increase in the number of airports by 27 percent in 2009, depicting the impact on increased profits. The number of gateways also improved signfiainctly internationally, setrgnthning its position (Clougherty, Dresner, & Oum, 2001).

4.1 Global aviation policy

The policy focuses on expanding the aviation network all over the world with the main emphasis on the western countries. It emphasizes on increasing international passengers and capturing wider customers. Canadian aviation has constructed over 100 airports all over the world operated under National Airport Systems (NAS). The policy emphasizes security screening, increasing competitiveness, creating marketing opportunities and linking international airlines with industry’s economic sustainability and growth (Bruno, 2015).

4.2 Partial liberalization

Canada adopts the partial liberal policy for international aviation as it supports trade between countries. The flag carriers of Canada represents dual designation in the international markets. Liberal bilateral agreement of the aviation with other countries represents another strength of the industry. Clougherty, Dresner, and Oum (2001) identify the positive impacts of dual designation as it increased market share and the volume of passengers. Liberalism is the central factor that improved the international presence of Canadian airlines. Due to the Canadian model aviation experienced high traffic increase in country-pair markets (Clougherty, Dresner, & Oum, 2001).

4.3 International alliances

Canadian aviation takes the keen interest in forming international alliances as it recognizes the direct impact on economy and stability of the aviation industry. The aviation has formed alliances with other airline companies in American and Europe, becoming the prominent strength of industry (JUNG, 2005). Mergers remain another strategy used by Canadian international aviation to enhance its performance (Clougherty, Dresner, & Oum, 2001).

4.4 World tourism

The country increased profitability by expanding operations through construction of more airports. The strategic impact of the aviation industry is more significant as it uses airlines for commercial purposes including tourism travel. Schedule and non-schedule air service add to the strength as it provides convenience to the international passengers and saves them from the difficulty of missing flights. The international airline provides other services related to tourism such as the planned tours, recreation, provision of accommodations to international passengers and entertainment. The partnership with tourism council becomes another benefit of the international aviation (Kaps & Phillips, 2004).

4.5 Current prospects

The international aviation industry is performing excellence as 33,000 aircraft operate in the industry. Around 207 commercial carriers are engaged in providing schedule and non-schedule flights. The country reports over 200 certified airports, catering demands of massive passengers both nationally and internationally. Commercially the aviation industry is viable and capable of covering operational costs (Clougherty, Dresner, & Oum, 2001).

4.6 International airlines

International aviation offers regional airlines, charter airlines, air cargo carriers, general aviation and special services. Different categories provide choices to the customers thus adding more attractions. Passenger attractions involve car-hire, packing facilities, hotels, tours, travel agents, retail purchases, financial services, and conferences. The international gateway allows aviation to target remote passengers (Jacobs, 2012).

4.7 Competitiveness

The international aviation strategy of Canada allows generating enormous revenues through international flights. High-quality standards and service permit it to compete with the leading airlines all over the world. The concept of collecting people and culture results in increased passenger turnover across national and international flights. Transportation from remote areas enhances the operational capacity and generate huge revenues. Investing in international infrastructures and the high number of airports adds to the competitiveness (Jacobs, 2012).


Bruno, G. (2015). CONNECTING CANADA: An Aviation Policy Agenda for Global Competitiveness and Economic Prosperity.

CABAA. (2015). Economic Impact of Business Aviation in Canada – 2015 Update. InterVISTAS Consulting Inc.


Clougherty, J., Dresner, M., & Oum, T. (2001). An empirical analysis of Canadian international air policy: effects of dual-carrier designation and partial liberalization. Transport Policy, 8 (3).

ICLG. (2018). Aviation Law. Retrieved 04 03, 2018, from

JUNG, S. Y. (2005). A Legal Analysis of Aviation Security under the International Legal Regime. McGill University.

Jacobs. (2012). The Strategic Impact of the Canadian Aviation Based Travel and Tourism Industry on Canada’s Economy. Jacobs Consultancy Canada Inc.

Kaps, R. W., & Phillips, E. (2004). Publishing Aviation Research: A Literature Review of Scholarly Journals… Journal of Aviation/ Aerospace Education & Research, 14 (1).

TC. (2018). Air operator certificates. Retrieved 04 03, 2018, from

TC. (2018). TP 11524 – Foreign Air Operator Certification and Inspection Manual. Retrieved 04 03, 2018, from



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