This case study research-based report exhibits the identification and evaluation of the different stakeholders of the organization using the power and interest matrix, stakeholder analysis matrix, and stakeholder engagement assessment. In addition, this report shows the demonstration of critical analyzation and description of different learnings at an individual and organizational level. Also, the application of behaviours, attitudes, and traits based on the theories and practices will illustrate on this report as how the organization’s behaviours, attitudes, and traits are socially and culturally acceptable with the accordance to the code of ethics. Moreover, this report explicitly imparts and expounds about the strategies to influence one’s self and others that are appropriate to the society despite the diversity of culture.
Lastly, the discussion of positiveness in a work environment will illustrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the organization towards success and achievement, as its critically analysed and evaluated through a profound research and cognitive reflection. Subjectively, consistency is the best recommendation for the organization as to continuously promoting and changing the work environment and culture from the employees and franchisees to the top management of Caltex. Based on factual findings, Caltex has changed its agreement between its franchisees and denouncing any form of unethical behaviour. As suggestive conclusion, the exploitation of workers as unethical behaviour would have been prevented or lessened if the organization has been proactive in addressing sensitive issues through appropriate evaluation of individuals within the organization.
This report aims to sustain and innovate the business’ operation between stakeholders of the organization through efficient and effective performance. Thus, the productivity of the business’s operation relies on the application of the organization’s problem-solving and decision-making within the business or operational contexts. In addition, this will impart about the different individual and organizational learning based on learning theories that will succour the organization within their operational context for the efficiency and effectiveness of organization’s performance. Also, this will exhibit the professional and ethical application of behaviour within the organization in a social and cultural approach with appropriate manner. Thus, this report aims to assess the stakeholder management strategies between the stakeholders within the company to maintain and develop constructive business relationships. As a result, the exhibition of the efficiency and effectiveness of the stakeholder management will manifest on the outcome or performance of the business.
This report attempts to analyze the Caltex Australia company as to how the organization works with its stakeholders with the support and application of different theories in organizational learning. Furthermore, Caltex is an Australian company that supplies transport fuel needs through customer’s segment, aviation, retailers, mining, and agriculture that started in the late 1940s (Caltex Australia, n.d.). The organization expanded its business through franchising, wherein the organization operates under the Caltex Star Mart, which is one of the largest convenience store network in Australia as the organization has 620 stores and 320 franchisees (Caltex Australia, n.d.). Predominantly, this reports aims to unveil the organization’s culture on how the organization handles its internal and external stakeholders through efficient and effective stakeholder management, despite the different cultural, ethical, behavioural, and social challenges within the organization. Overall, the application of different ethics, behavior, theory and process, and analyzation of approach and tactics will demonstrate on this report as it aims to expatiate the understanding of the different principles and practices of learning in an organization such as Caltex.
Analyzation and Identification of stakeholders are important in a business or organization as it helps an organization in the decision-making process and problem-solving of the business. Thus, it gives the organization an advantage to deal with challenges and risks that may affect the organization at the early stage. In the case study, below are the applications of stakeholder analysis and learning process of an organization and its different stakeholders.
- Identification of all internal and external stakeholders in the case study.
In all types of organization, there is one or more individual affecting the culture, values, mission, and visions of an organization. These are individuals who are directly or indirectly affected by an organization and vice-versa. These individuals can come from different part of an organization, which can be within the organization or outside of the organization. These individuals or, sometimes can be another organizations are stakeholders. A stakeholder is a party that has interest in an organization, project, or business that can be affected and affect an organization, project, or business (Investopedia, n.d.). In addition, stakeholders can be classified as an internal and external stakeholder. Internal stakeholders are individuals that have a direct relationship to an organization, project, or business or work for the organization such as employees, owners, and top management like directors and chief executives of the organization (Investopedia, n.d.). While, external stakeholders are individuals that have an indirect relationship to the organization but affected by the organization’s performance or outcomes such as suppliers, creditors, and public groups (Investopedia, n.d.). In this case study, there are some stakeholders mentioned as to how they are affected and affect the organization.
Below is the list of different stakeholders in this case study that played important role in the organization:
|Internal Stakeholder||External Stakeholder||Role|
|Caltex top management||The business main management including owners, directors, executives, and other top-level management within the company.|
|Caltex employees||The company’s employees including those working within the main company, franchisees branch, and other individuals at the bottom management of the business.|
|Franchisees||Those individuals who work with their own Caltex business or branch, but still attached to the business’ main company. These franchisees include the Rana Family.|
|Australian Fair Work Ombudsman||This government agency promotes productive and cooperative workplace for employees, contractors, and employers to understand and comply with the Australian work laws and regulations (Australian Government, n.d)|
|Fair Fax Media||This is one of the media companies in Australia that publishes information about current events. And other related information for the community (Fair Fax media Australia, n.d.)|
|Suppliers||This party concerns about supply needs of the company, but do not have any power in decision-making.|
|Former employees and franchisees||These parties are previously internal stakeholders, but they have a concern with the business as they voiced out their experience about the business.|
- Evaluation of the stakeholder management strategy through stakeholder analysis matrix and stakeholder assessment.
Given all the stakeholders of an organization, these stakeholders are can be classified depending on their power, degree of influence, and interest in the business. This classification can be done through the power and interest matrix. Mapping the stakeholders through the power and interest matrix can be done through brainstorming, which determines what stakeholder will have to prioritize. The power and interest matrix help to manage the stakeholders as to how the stakeholders can make and break the business. According to Sharma (2010), the power and interest matrix is a tool that helps to categorize project or organization stakeholders that manage the stakeholders according to the priority to the least minimal effort. In the case study, determining the power and interest of the stakeholders through brainstorming according to their role and how the stakeholders affect the business. The power and interest matrix are divided into 4 quadrants and have 2 increasing level. Below is the sample of the power and interest matrix.
Figure 1. Power and Interest matrix, Adapted from Mendelow, A.L. (1981). ‘Environmental Scanning – The Impact of the Stakeholder Concept,’ ICIS 1981 Proceedings, 20.
According to Rachel Thompson (n.d), the allocation of the position of stakeholders on the matrix will indicate the actions needed for the specific stakeholder, which below explains the figure 1.
- High Power and High Interest – These stakeholders should manage closely and fully involved in the business or project as it needs to be satisfied.
- High Power and Less Interest – This type of stakeholders should be satisfied, but less information.
- Low Power and High Interest – This type of stakeholders does not need to be satisfied but keep informed with all the issues and other important matters about the business.
- Low Power and Low Interest – These stakeholders need to be monitored by do not need to be satisfied or well-informed.
In connection to the case study, the different stakeholders are classified and being mapped on the Power and Interest Matrix according to their level of influence through brainstorming. Below is the Power and Interest Matrix for Caltex case study:
Keep Satisfied Managed Closely
High a) Caltex Top Management
c) Caltex Franchisees
Power Monitor Keep Informed
e) Fair Fax Media b) Caltex current employees
d) Australian Fair Work Ombudsman
g) Former employees and franchisees f) Suppliers
Low Interest High
Figure 2. Power and Interest Matrix for the Caltex case study.
Based on figure 2 above, below is an explanation of the Power and Interest matrix for Caltex case study:
- Caltex Top Management – This stakeholder has high power and high interest in the business as it involves into the decision-making and problem-solving process of the business. This stakeholder has the capacity to make changes within the business and process of the business.
- Caltex current employees – This stakeholder has less power and high interest as employees follow what the top management says. The interest of employees is high as its concern about their job like salary, wages, benefits, and another employee benefits program. However, employees do not have much of power to make changes and to be part of the decision-making process of the business.
- Caltex Franchisees – This type of stakeholder has medium power and interest as it takes part in the decision-making process with the consent of the top management. The interest of this stakeholder is high as they bear the business’ name, which affects them in operating their own franchised business.
- Australian Fair Work Ombudsman – This stakeholder has high interest and less power, in a business perspective. This stakeholder has high interest as it promotes a productive and cooperative workplace for all worker, which regulates and monitor the compliance of Australian work laws (Australian Government, n.d). The power of this stakeholder cannot make any changes within the company’s decision-making process. However, this stakeholder can have power to close the business if there is violation of work laws.
- Fair Fax Media – This stakeholder has less interest and power as it needs to be informed of what is happening to inform the community.
- Suppliers – Generally, this stakeholder has less power and medium interest to the business as it concerns about supplying the business, without suppliers the business can not operate its business. However, it can be possible that the business may find another supplier, so suppliers do not have the power to make difference or changes within the business’ decision-making process.
- Former employees and franchisees – This stakeholder has less power and less interest as it does not have any concerns and can not take part in the decision-making process of the business. However, this stakeholder may be helpful to be a resource of information about what is happening within the business. The experiences of the former employees and franchisees can be helpful to unveil any unethical behaviour within the business.
Aside from the stakeholder analysis matrix as a tool to categorize stakeholders in an organization, there are many tools to evaluate the degree of engagement of the stakeholders in an organization such as the stakeholder engagement assessment matrix. The stakeholder engagement assessment matrix helps to keep a track record of the level of engagement of a stakeholder in an organization or project (raadchfat, 2016). Also, it helps to record the desired level of engagement of stakeholders in an organization. Below is the stakeholder engagement assessment matrix for the Caltex Case study:
C- Current level of engagement
D- Desired level of engagement
|Caltex Top Management||C||D|
|Caltex current employees||C||D|
|Australian Fair Work Ombudsman||C|
|Fair Fax Media||C|
|Suppliers||C and D|
|Former employees and franchisees||C|
Figure 3. Stakeholder Engagement Assessment Matrix
The rationale of figure 3 for stakeholder engagement assessment matrix:
- Caltex top management – The top management of the business is currently an unware of the challenges and conundrum within its franchisees. The desired level of engagement should be leading the business as the top management does the decision-making process and solving-problem. As mentioned on the case study, the top management of Caltex is not aware of the worker’s exploitation as it only concerns of the profit that franchisees make.
- Caltex current employees – The current employees of the business are seemed not aware of what is happening within the business. Although, current employees might be aware of the conundrum, but employees are reluctant to express themselves due to life and job threats. The desired level of engagement should be supportive as the employees need to uphold the business’ mission and vision or other changes that the business can think of.
- Caltex Franchisees – The franchisees are resistant in some changes on the franchisee and franchisor agreement. These changes provoked franchisees in some unethical behaviour such as exploitation of workers and taking advantage of part-time student workers and immigrants. The desired level of engagement should be supportive as franchisees bear the name of the business, although franchisees manage their own branch.
- Australian Fair Work Ombudsman – This stakeholder plays as regulatory agency for workers in Australia. Thus, the agency should just be neutral as it needs to be aware but not persistent to the changes within the business. However, it can be resistant due to violations of the work law.
- Fair Fax Media – This stakeholder is neutral in the level of engagement as it needs to be aware of the current situation in the business to inform the community.
- Suppliers – This stakeholder should always be supportive to the business regardless of what the conundrum is. The suppliers only concern about the supplies of the business, which it can be replaceable. Thus, suppliers should always be supportive to the business or it can be replaced.
- Former employees and franchisees – These stakeholders are neutral in the level of engagement as these stakeholders do not have power and interest to the business but can be a good resource of information for the top management or other concerned organization on what are the challenges and things to rectify within the business.
These tools for managing stakeholders are helpful to ensure the success of an organization. Thus, keeping track record and documenting the different stakeholders can save more time, money, and resources. According to Rachell Thompson (n.d), using these tools can put an organization into shape as identifying the most powerful stakeholders can affect the organization, it can be resolve at the early stage.
This section expounds about the methods in stakeholder management, which elevates the ethical and professional behaviour in the business world. Also, it promotes the ethical and professional manner in an explicit detail from the business. Thus, the application of ethics and professional manner in the business exhibit in this section through the case study.
- Analyzation of how learning is happening within the Caltex for individual and the company. Identification of these problems and description on how these problems affect the company.
Organizations or businesses have come across different level or learning to achieve the mission, vision, and goal of the organization or business. Thus, learning in an organization is vital to keep the process and operation of the business or organization. In addition, organizational learning is a learning process that comprises interaction within the business or organization, which includes individuals and collective degree of analyzation that can lead to the organization’s goals (Popova-Nowak & Cseh, 2015). Before the organizational learning, an organization must first focus on the individual learning as it matters in shaping the organizational learning of an organization. There are different types of individual theories learning, which helps to understand the different individual learning within the organization. According to James Kelly (2012), individual learning theories are well-structured principles that expatiate individuals on how the acquisition, retainment, and reminiscence of knowledge. Below are the different types of individual learning theories, according to James Kelly (2012):
- Behaviourism – The acquisition of new and change behavoirs through stimuli and response.
Problem: This type of individual theory stated that giving rewards or consequences to achieve the desired behaviour can trigger the learning by changing the environment. The problem is, if an individual is resistant to change and obstinate to follow changes. Most employees who have been working for such long time are often difficult to change ((Walk me blog, 2017). In the case study, this problem can affect the organization as its contended on how things work within the organization. The effect will be conflicts within the organization such as the relationship between franchisees, employees, and franchisor. Conflicts and misunderstanding may occur due to resistance in change.
- Cognitivism – The learning happens and process information internally.
Problem: This type of learning, learns the knowledge through processing information internally and contemplate what is happening in the environment. The reservation in this type of theory, is over contemplation as it may lead to miscalculate important matters to deal with. The problem is a sensitive problem and unpleasant issue arising within the organization (Walk me blog, 2017), it needs to be discussed. In the case study, the lack of cognitivism affects the organization by not addressing the problems and difficulties within the organization. The organization lacks cognitivism as it does not deal with problems and left unresolved.
- Constructivism – The learning is based on one’s experiences.
Problem: This type of theory explains the knowledge acquired through one’s experiences. The issue for this type of theory is that, most people are sceptical and afraid of taking the risk. Since, this type of learning theory refers to the learning acquired through trying things to gain learnings, which basically experience. An individual may not able to learn things constructively without experience to acquire the learning. In the case study, all the internal stakeholders are sceptical and afraid of trying new things. For instance, the top management are sceptic about changing the agreement of franchisor and franchisee. In addition, franchisees are afraid to take the risk of changing things and innovating their own business.
Once individual learning has been addressed and identified, an organization can focus on the learning within the organization. There are different types of organization learning that helps the organization to define the process of relaying the learning within the organization. There are tools that can help the organization to attain information about the knowledge or learning process within the organization such as the loop learning. Loop learning helps an organization to appreciate the learning between client and organization or within the organization (Frost, 2010), this learning is the product of wide concept from Argrys and Schon (1996). Loop learning has three levels namely Single, Double, and Triple loop learning. Below is a further explanation of loop learning level:
- Single loop learning – This level of learning follows the rule of an organization, it comprises one feedback loop and response to an expected outcome (Frost, 2010).
- Double loop learning – This learning loop changing the rules, the values and strategies of an organization change to create a more productive work environment (Frost, 2010).
Figure 3. The Three types of organizational learning, adapted from Argrys and Schon (1996).
‘Organizational Theory – The company perspective,’ Alan Frost, (2010).
In Caltex case study, the organization follows the level of single loop learning. The affect to the organization is miscommunication between franchisor, franchisees, and employees. Single loop learning does not require to obtain the rationale of a delays of a certain project or interruption, it requires to get the job done on its deadline. Furthermore, Caltex only concerns about its franchisees to pay the royalties and base rent and as long as the franchisees follow what has been stipulated between the franchisees and franchisor. This will give the franchisees an outcome of placing its employees at risk and being disadvantage. The double loop learning requires the engagement of different stakeholders within the organization on how the occurrence of problems within the organization. In the case study, the engagement of the franchisor and franchisees are limited to what are the favourable for the franchisor as it sets the agreement. The top management does not address sensitive issues within the franchisees level. Thus, this will result to more complicated issue within the organization as the franchisees bear the organization’s name with the same goals, vision, and mission. Although, the organization exhibits double loop learning within the organization. The execution of the loop learning does not demonstrate the real concept of the theory as what is provided and explained by Argrys and Schon. An improper execution of learning theory may lead to more complicated issues. In general, these organizational learning theories are set of examples for guidance within an organization. These theories serve as an aid to the appreciation and identification process of learning within the organization as organization may change the learning for the betterment of within the organization. As to self-perception, learning is a continuous process that every individual or organization should internalize the concept of how learning process is. Thus, learning starts within an individual to another until within and out organization.
- The application of behavioural, cognitive, and constructivism theory as recommended strategies to effectively assure the occurrence of learning at an individual level. The application of knowledge management theory to effectively ensure the occurrence of learning at an organization level in the case study.
As to a self-perception, learning is a continuous process that everyone learns from different aspect of their lives and can occur from different circumstances. Thus, learning is vital for survival of an individual in the society or in any other aspect. Notwithstanding, there are learning theories that suggest how the occurrence of learning within an individual. According to James Kelly (2012), learning theories are organized collection of principles that explicitly elucidate the process of acquisition, retainment, and reminiscence of an individual’s knowledge. In addition, these learning theories impart on how the occurrence of learning of an individual. Based on the work of experts such as B.F Skinner, there are three types of learning theory such as behavioural, cognitivism, and constructivism theory. Below is the elucidation of three types of individual learning:
- Behaviourism Theory – This type of approach on individual learning theory emphasizes the observation of stimulus-response behaviour because of change from the environment (Mcleod, 2017). Thus, learning on this theory based on the acquisition of learning depending on the condition of the environment. In addition, the application of this approach exhibits through the positive and negative reinforcement such as giving rewards to a certain achievement of an individual and vice versa for negative reinforcement.
- Cognitive Theory – This type of approach on learning suggests that the analyzation on processing learning can be elucidated through conceptual process (Sincero, n.d). Furthermore, cognitive theory is based on tendency of self-concept that affects an individual’s behaviour, which can be positive and negative depending how an individual process the information through cognition.
- Constructive Theory – In this type of approach on individual learning, an individual can learn new information and knowledge through the process of experience. According to Professor George E. Hein (1991), constructivism refers to the idea that an individual’s construction on learning is for one’s self. Thus, each individual construct the definition as an individual learns from it.
Recommendation: Application of Individual Learning Theories to Caltex
Based on the case study, the organization’s paucity on individual learning impedes its growth and ability to resolve obstacles within the organization. Thus, individual learning is significantly indispensable to the organization for its problem-solving, decision-making process and stakeholder management.
In a self-conception, the organization should consider the application of behavioural theory as the organization does not exhibit any motivation for its employees, franchisees, and other stakeholder of the organization. In addition, the organization can motivate employees, franchisees, and other stakeholders by giving rewards on every achievement in line to the organization’s values, goals, and mission. In this case, it is not necessary for the organization to push its employees to work hard and get the job done in an unethical manner. Also, behaviourism will help franchisees to achieve its goal through the positive and negative reinforcement of behaviourism theory as it motivates its employees to get the job done at a desired time without disadvantage to the employees.
Before processing the learning of an organization cognitively in the case study, the organization should have pivot on the individual learning as how everyone within the organization process the learning within individual’s self in a conceptual or cognitive way. Moreover, the organization top management should focus on their individual learning cognitively to be able to manage their subordinates. The enhancement of cognitive learning of individual within the organization can be acquired through a proper training, especially with the top management of the organization. It will ensure the organization’s top management a fair, just, honest, and equal decision-making and problem-solving outcome. The approach of cognitive theory helps the individual within the organization to enhance their good discernment of events or circumstances within the organization.
The approach of constructive theory barely demonstrated in the case study. However, the concept of this theory has been mixed up with other attitude of every individual within the organization. The application of constructive theory can be helpful for the organization through its employees. The organization’s employees can learn from their own experience, once employees have tried a certain task and performed it. As a general-conception, employees learn from experiencing things within the organization and tend to enhance the knowledge acquired from experience for the betterment of the process. It will be helpful for the organization in terms time and money. Also, it applies to the owners of franchise and top management as it will be easier for them to innovate the process of learning and knowledge within the organization.
Application of Knowledge Management theory
There are a lot of ways to gain knowledge, since knowledge is based on acquired information through experience and education. Based on Noel Ransom (n.d), there are three forms of knowledge such as explicit, implicit, and tacit knowledge. Tacit knowledge is an information that is difficult to convert into a tangible form, and implicit knowledge is an information that does not come from tangible form but can be converted to tangible form. While, explicit knowledge is an information that come from tangible form. In connection with, knowledge management theory is a theory of sequence of pace that includes the identification, collection, repository of information, and sharing of explicit, implicit, and tacit information from one individual to another within the organization (Ransom, n.d). Furthermore, knowledge management theory focuses on the process and management of the organization’s information within the organization.
Thus, the knowledge management theory helps organization to manage the identified, stored, collected, and shared information within the organization. On the other hand, some people say that knowledge management within organization is getting the right knowledge at the right person at the right time. Hence, it is vital for an organization to manage and process every piece of information within the organization. The knowledge management theory is a broad and wide subject whe it comes to managing knowledge. Therefore, there are processes that serve as the backbone of the knowledge management theory to ensure that the application of the knowledge management is a success factor of an organization. Basically, knowledge management process refers to how organization handle or manage the information within the organization at some level or stage of information cycle. According to Irma Becerra-Fernandez and Rajiv Sabherwal (2010), there are four main knowledge management process namely; knowledge discovery, knowledge capture, knowledge sharing, and knowledge application. Below is a brief explanation of four main knowledge management process:
- Discovery of Knowledge – This type of process can be defined as the new development of tacit and explicit knowledge within the organization (Becerra-Fernandez & Sabherwal, 2010). Basically, the information resides within the organization which remains undiscovered, it is a synthesis of the organization’s prior informtion or knowledge.
- Knowledge Capture – This process involves the conversion of knowledge from tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge and vice versa (Becerra-Fernandez & Sabherwal, 2010). Continuously, the conversion of capturing knowledge has sub-processes which are externalization and internalization. Externalization is a sub-process wherein the organization captures the tacit knowledge from its employees and process the documentation, verbalization, and sharing of the knowledge within the organization, while Internalization is a sub-process that the employes’ of an organization acquire the tacit knowledge (Becerra-Fernandez & Sabherwal, 2010).
- Sharing of Knowledge – This is one of the easist tyoe of processes of knowledge, wherein sharing of knowledge is the communication of tacit and explicit knowledge to other individuals within the organization (Becerra-Fernandez & Sabherwal, 2010).
- Application of Knowledge – This type of knowledge process does not require a cognitive thinking, but more on a direction and routine. The application of knowledge requires the available knowledge to use in decision-making and perform a task (Becerra-Fernandez & Sabherwal, 2010).
As stated above, the knowledge management helps the organization to process and manage the information and knowledge that resides within and outside the organization. In the case study, Caltex should apply and demonstrate the concept of knowledge management process as it help to ensure the information are being disseminated from one individual to another.Knowledge management process is a key success factor of the organization if knowledge or information are well-managed within the organization. Moreover, to ensure the occurrence of effective learning within the organization; the organization should start discovering the information within the organization through its data from the previous performance or through the stored data within the organization. This will help the organization to address the issue on the agreement of their franchisees. The organization can address the issue properly, if the organization has a tangible information of the performance of franchisees as related to issue of unfavourable agreement. Furthermore, the assurance of effective learning within the organization resides within the employees. The organization should aply the concept of capturing the knowledge or information from its employees from the bottom to the top management. The gathering of information from employees helps the organization to address the issue of exploitation of workers.Also, this can be documented and recored as to what is happening within the franchisee level of the organization. The organization will ensure the effective learning if the organization has captued the knowledge flrom its employees. In addition, the execution of capturing knowledge will be more effective with the sharing of knowledge. Sharing the knowledge is a vital process within the organization, since constantly communication is a key factor to the success of an organization. sharing the rght knowledge means communicating from one invidual to another to ensure that everyone within the organization is informed and knwoeldgeable of what is happening within the organization. Hence, Caltex should share the knowledge across the entire organization from emloyee, franchisee, to the top management of organization. Communication will help the organization to reach their goal and address any issue within the organization. This will prevent the organization from having an ethical behaviour towards the organization as the organization has an overview of the happening within the organization from the bottom to top management. This is an assurance of everyone is well-informed of what is not permitted and what is permitted within the organization. Meanwhile, the application of knowledge can be helpful for the organization through instruction from the top management to its franchisees. The knowledge does not require an explanation or rationale how the task has needs to be done or what process should be done in a certain task, but more ob following instruction from the expert like the Caltex top management. However, a reservation of this type process is without the explanation of knowledge. This is where workers can be vulnerable for exploitation as employees should follow the instruction instead of thinking how the porces works within a given task. In general, Caltex should focus on process of managing the knowledge and information of the organization within. A misinformation and miscommunication may cause a huge damage to the organization. The knowledge and information should always be treated as pritority within the organization. This will ensure the organization’s success. However, the organization has its own way of managing its information and knowledge within the organization. Evidently, it is effective as it has shown on the performance of the organization in the global market.
- The social and cultural identification and analyzation of appropriate attitudes, behaviours, and traits in Caltex.
In a business world, the diversity of people coming from different culture, social environ ent, and ethnicity can be the strenght of an organization. Thus, it is important that an organization must profoundly scrutinize and manage the cultural differences within the organization. There are more definitions for culture as referred to different ethnicity such as mexican culture, african culuture, and etc. In the workplace, some people say that the appropriate cultural attitude, behaviour, and traits are more on the acceptable behaviour, attitudes, and traits despite of the differences and diversity in a workplace (Universal Class, n.d). In addition, these are the behaviour, attitudes, and traits that are acceptable in general, which different cultures share a common attitude, behaviour, and traits such as respect, empathy, and etc. While, social pertains to the society or community as a general notion. Social appropriate refers to the behavoiurs, traits, and attitudes that are acceptable and approve by the community or society (Rummel, n.d). The social appropriate depends on the geographical area, which the appropriate social behaviours, traits, and attitudes might be acceptable in a certain area but not on the other are. However, there are common socially appropriate behaviours, attitudes, and traits that the whole human society share. In a workplace, traits, behaviours, and attitude are totally three different thing but closedly connected to each other. According to different dictionaries, behaviour is a response of an individual or a group to an action, environment, or stimulus. While, attitude is a disposition to respond towards a person, idea, object, or individual in a positive or negative way. In a self-perception, traits are a combination of an individua’s attitudes and behaviours. According to Stephanie Pappas (2017), traits are more on an indvidual’s personality that makes an invidual, an invidual. Hence, every organization composed of individuals with different traits, behaviours, and attitudes. In the case study, there are behaviours, attitudes, and traits that are socially and culturally accepted and not accepted, which exhibited by different stakeholders of the organization. Based on a profound analysis of stakeholders’ behaviours, attitudes, and traits, below is the list of identified behaviours, attitudes, and traits from the case study by the Caltex’s stakeholders:
- Empathy – is more than a simple sympathy, it is the ability of an indvidual to experience and relate to the thoughts, emotions, and experience of another individual (Pressley, 2012).
- Fairness – According to Arthur Dobrin D.S.W (2012), Fairness is the findings and application of the average throughout all the aspect. Thus, fairness is the result of equality.
- Kindness – The general notion of kindness is a voluntary gesture of goodwill towards other individual, group, object, or something (Australian Kindness Movement, n.d).
- Respect – Respect is one of the most important aspects that an individual should posses in a workplace. According to David Balovich (2006), Respect is the consideration to individual or group’s privacy, space and belongings, philophies, personal viewpoints, abilites, and culutral beliefs.
- Considerate – In general, considerate is a cautious action to prevent any harmful effects to other individual. Similarly, consideration is giving respect to others as per David Balovich (2006).
A positive and negative analyzation of stakeholders’ behaviours, attitudes, and traits in Caltex.
|Stakeholder||Empathy (+ and -)||Fairness (+ and -)||Kindness (+ and -)||Respect (+ and -)||Considerate (+ and -)|
|Caltex top management||Positive||Positive||Negative||Positive||Negative|
|Caltex current employees||Positive||Positive||Positive||Positive||Positive|
|Australian Fair Work Ombudsman||Positive||Positive||Positive||Positive||Positive|
|Fair Fax Media||Positive||Positive||Positive||Positive||Positive|
|Former employees and franchisees||Positive||Positive||Positive||Positive||Positive|
Brief explanation of the table above, based on the case study:
- Caltex top management – The top management of the organization exhibits an empathy towards the issue of exploitation of workers at the franchisee level. Thus, the organization makes a fair investigation across all franchisee store to verify the said allegation. Once findings revealed, the organization ordered the franchisees to make a repayment of all underpaid employees. Thus, kindness is not demonstrated as kindness should be voluntary goodwill act towards other. The act of the organization towards the issue is due to the circumstances and obligation of the organization. Moreover, the organization’s manifestation of respect within the organization is a positive response as the top management upholds the understanding of ethical behaviour, based on the organization’s standard ethics within the organization. However, the organization is not being considerate towards the franchisees as franchisees have reservations regarding the fees that encompasses the franchise agreement. As a result, the franchisees provoked this act to do unethical attitude and behaviours toward the employees.
- Caltex current employees – Evidently, the current employees of the organization are being disadvantaged as employees are vulnerable and susceptible in any form of unethical behaviour. As shown in the case study, current employees are still positive towards the organization and franchisees, despite of all the grievances that the organization caused. This positiveness includes the respect and consideration to the organization and franchisees as current employees are aware of how the franchise agreement works. In addition, current employees are empathetic to franchise owners and showing fairness in doing their job. The kindness of current employees is beyond the expectation of an individual as it has shown immeasurable kindness towards their job and the owners. As a proof, current employees are putting their lives at risk in managing the store at night, which is prone to any crime that might happen during the night shift.
- Caltex Franchisees – Not in general but based on study, the manifestation of franchisees on the appropriate behaviours, attitudes, and traits are not acceptable. The franchisees are not being empathetic towards its employees about the different emotional and physical disturbances that employees are going through, instead franchisees treat this as an area to take advantage of the employees. Thus, the concept of fairness is not showing on any act made by the franchisees. Hence, the franchisees disrespected the employees’ beliefs, morals, personal viewpoints, and their personalities are human being. If franchisees are disrespectful towards its employees, franchisees are being inconsiderate to what its employees are mourning for. In general, there is no kindness at all from owners of Caltex franchise.
- Australian Fair Work Ombudsman – This stakeholder exhibited the right behaviours, attitudes, and traits towards the issue of exploitation. Thus, these actions are part of the obligations of the stakeholder to the organization. However, this stakeholder lacking the emotional and sensible connection to the employees but can be great relief for the victims.
- Fair Fax Media – Although this type of stakeholder does not play a vital role in the case study, this stakeholder fairly disseminates information to the community or public and shows an empathetic action and kindness towards the victims of exploitation through communicating to the right government agency to get support and help. Even though this agency does not have any interest for all the stakeholders involved in the case, this agency has shown respect and consideration through giving each other’s a chance to state their thoughts, opinions, and statement.
- Suppliers – This stakeholder does not show any manifestation towards the issue of exploitation. However, suppliers will be in favour of the top management and the franchisees as suppliers deals and care more about their business before anything and anyone else.
- Former employees and franchisees – These stakeholders show an immense empathy towards their previous colleague regarding the difficulties within the organization. Thus, these stakeholders have given a fair and kind statement about their own experience about the issue with consideration to the franchisees and top management of the organization.
In general, all the internal and external stakeholders in the organization have shown positive and negative behaviour, attitude, and traits toward each other. Each action has consequences and effect to the organization’s growth and success. The behaviour, attitude, and trait of everyone may influence the organization’s process on the decision-making and solving-problem of the organization. Ratification and modification of internal culture should always be monitored and considered to maintain a positive and enticing work environment.
- An explanation of how the attitudes, behaviours, and traits support the expected standard ethics and professional behaviours of Caltex.
In every organization, there are set rules of ethics and professional conduct to maintain a good environment work place. Somehow, these ethics and professional code of conducts are derived from the universal behaviours, attitudes, and traits acceptable by all types of organization. Meanwhile, there are code of ethics and professional set by international community to share a common goal. One of the established codes of ethics is the IITP code of ethics, which stands for Institute of IT Professionals. The IITP code of ethics constituted under the power of constitution of institute of IT professionals New Zealand Inc to establish and ensure the essence of professionalism and ethically operation with the interest of the public, community, and client at leas of their actions (IT Professionals of New Zealand Inc). Similarly, the Caltex Australia must follow the IITP basic principles as it is internationally acknowledged by international community. Based on the IITP code of ethics, these are the summary of the principles of the IITP code of ethics:
- Good Faith – Professionals should treat the everyone with dignity, equality, and good faith without discrimination. In addition, consideration to the values and cultural sensitivity should have always given to everyone that affects the work.
- Integrity – Professionals should act in accordance to their profession with honour, dignity, and integrity to value the trust given by everyone and demonstrate the honesty, skills, judgement, and initiation to contribute to the welfare of everyone.
- Community-focus – Professionals are responsible for the welfare and rights of everyone, which should come first before their profession.
- Skills – The application of professionals’ knowledge and skills should always be manifested on their according to their employers and clients without compromising the ITTP code of ethics.
- Continuous Development – Professionals should continuously cultivate their knowledge, experience, expertise, and skills through their careers to contribute to the collaborative wisdom of the profession.
- Informed Consent – All professionals should always enlighten everyone about the consequences of their actions.
- Managed Conflicts of Interest – Professionals should always inform their employer, clients, and any other concerned parties about the conflict on interest that may affect their job from doing so.
- Competence – Professionals should always follow the acceptable ethical and professional practice and provide service and advises in a diligent and cautious manner.
In connection to Caltex case study, the behaviours, attitudes, and traits demonstrated and identified are well supported by the ITTP code of ethics in accordance to its principles, which stated above. Below is a further explanation of the identified behaviours, attitudes, and traits in Caltex in relation to the IITP code of ethics:
- Empathy – As the given definition from the previous discussion, empathy includes under the concept of good faith of the IITP code of ethics as professionals should be more sensitive and considerate to everyone. Good faith as based on the IITP code of ethics definition, it promotes equality and consideration to the values of cultural differences, which connects to the ability of professional to relate themselves to everyone. Also, some of the stakeholders manifested the concept of empathy with the connection to good faith toward the organization or stakeholders of Caltex.
- Fairness – Fairness is one of the behaviours, attitudes, and traits related with good faith under IITP code of ethics. It substantiates the statement of good faith through treating everyone equally and without discrimination. However, the demonstration of fairness has been manifested by some of the stakeholders of Caltex such as the Caltex management, the current employees, and other stakeholders listed on the previous discussion.
- Kindness – Integrity encompasses kindness as Caltex should value the trust given by its stakeholders of the organization. As stated in the IITP code of ethics, Caltex should always apply the concept of honesty, skills, judgement, and initiative for the well-being of its stakeholders. Unfortunately, some stakeholders have been provoked by different reason that hinders them to manifest kindness within the organization.
- Respect – Respect evolves around good faith as Caltex and professionals should consider the differences in culture and values within the organization. As stated on the IITP code of ethics, Caltex should value the differences on point of views and personal abilities of employees within the organization as according to the professional code of ethics. In some point, the consistency of valuing the difference are not maintained across the organization. However, respect as a behaviour, attitude, and trait of the organization supports the IITP code of ethics.
- Considerate – This is one of behaviours, attitudes, and traits that can be defined under almost of the principles on the IITP code of ethics. However, the essence of being considerate is to prevent any harm to everyone, which can be under the community focus of IITP code of ethics as it promotes the welfare and right of the people. In the Caltex’s stakeholders, some of the stakeholders are being considerate despite of the difficulties and issues toward the people within and outside the organization. Also, it manifests the essence of consideration within the organization with the IITP code of ethics.
Predominantly, the identified acceptable behaviours, attitudes, and traits from the organization are universal, common, and innate set of rules to all organization. It is well-expounded as a guidance to give more detailed and organized information on how everyone should act to prevent any disagreement, disadvantage, harm, and other difficulties. The essence of these acceptable behaviours, attitudes, and traits with the IITP code of ethics, is for the welfare of everyone.
- The building of analyzation and explanation of questions 3 and 4 with 4 plans of strategies that will influence self and others to demonstrate ethical and professional behaviour, which is socially and culturally appropriate.
In relation to the discussion about the individual and organizational learning, applying these learnings can make difference within the organization and across all the individual within the organization. The application of learnings may lead to self-influence and influencing other people. Influence may pertain to leaders, which leaders have more capability and power to influence others and themselves. A leader may have to follow its own words and accountable to every action (Bill Hogg and Associates, n.d). On the other hand, leadership pertains to the ability of influencing people towards the orgaization’s achievement and goals (Samson, Catley, Cathro, & Daft, 2015). Thus, being a leader can require different abilities, skill, and influence to manage the people. Moreover, there are different startegies to influence other, but before influencing others. It is important to know how to self-influence to be more confident when becoming a leader. Based on the previous discussion, there are different appoaches to use as a tool to strategize how to influence one’s self. Some people say, self-influence is the evolutional development of the behavioural self-management method and explained as the process of influencing one’s self (Furtner, Sachse, & Exenberger, 2012). Below is the list of self-influence strategy based on the behavioural approach on the case study:
- In self-influence, it is important to do a self-assessment before influencing others. Thus, using a rational persuasion can be vital in shaping the one’s self. Basically, rational persuasion is turning one’s point of view into a useful and helpful idea for the organization. On the other hand, rational persuasion is a process of presenting a well-reasoned and substantial explanation of one’s idea as the best option in a situation (Stack, 2016). Generally, this strategy imparts about self-believing and believing to one’s ideas and views supported by a strong rationale and good reasoning. This strategic self-influence helps a future leader to persuade followers to believe on the leader’s ideas and point of view.
- For interpersonal influence, one’s self must change its behaviour. One of the strategies for self-influence is being assertive. In a self-perception, being assertive means being firm and fair in every action, word, and decision in every situation. This will help an individual to stand its ground in every situation. But, some must say that being assertive is the ability to stand up for own right or for others’ right in a positive and unaggressive way (Skills you need, n.d.). In this suggested strategy, being assertive may inlfuence one’s self through becoming more firm and fair in decision-making. Followers and subordinates may tend to question the assertiveness of a leader, but with appropriate and substantiated reason, it will influence the followers and subordinates.
- To influence one’s self, it is indispensable to use a higher authority. This process of using higher authority will give additional credibility to one’s decision. Also, using a higher authority will help a leader to learning new things from higher authority to develop a new approach in every situation. Thus, a leader may reflect as to how a higher authority handles a situation.
Once leader organized the appropriate behaviour, attitude, and trait to manage people, it is necessary that a leader has knowledge on how it may influence others. Also, a leader should aware of what are the types of leader to influence others. Different people require different type of leader. Thus, a leader should have a good strategy on how to influence others. Below is the list of types of leadership to strategically influence others:
- To influence others, a leader should have the ability to make and bring difference in an organization. Thus, one of the types of leadership is transformational leadership. Transformational leadership is the special ability to bring innovation and change (Samson, Catley, Cathro, & Daft, 2015). Basically, this type of leadership requires a new ideas, innovation, and vision for the future. To influence others, one’s must motivate the people about the vision with a credible rationale and delivery of the vision. This type of leadership helps a leader to influence others by building a strong trust relationship between the people.
- On the other hand, one of the possible strategies to influence others through leadership is the transactional leadership. Transactional leadership refers to the clarification of roles, task requirements, initiation of the structure, then providing rewards, and showing consideration (Samson, Catley, Cathro, & Daft, 2015). Basically, influencing others may require some punishment and reward to motivate followers or subordinates. This type of leadership helps a leader to influence others by controlling others through punishment and reward.
- Other types of leadership require an emotion to influence others, this type of leadership called Charismatic leadership. Charismatic leadership is the ability to motivate others to surpass their expected capability and pushing them to their own full capability (Samson, Catley, Cathro, & Daft, 2015). In a self-perception of charismatic leadership, it is the ability of a leader to motivate others by igniting the emotion within and emphasizing the vision to influence others. On the other hand, charismatic leadership requires a verbal skills communication and eloquence to communicate to others in a profound level of emotion (Riggio, 2012).
As the adage goes “A great power, comes a great responsibility” from the movie Spiderman, this saying is true on some degree of leadership. However, influencing others requires changes in one’s behaviour, attitude, and traits to help shaping the best leader that it can possibly be. Overall, influencing others starts within one’s self. The strategies on developing one’s self through self-influence are vital to ensure the success in leadership management. In addition, this will be helpful in persuasion, motivation, and connecting to others. The strategies for leadership are based on psychological examination by experts throughout the years. However, it evolves from time to time as learning is a continuous process. The ability of influencing others through motivation and persuasion depends on special ability of one’s self.
- The aim of Caltex Australia in having its managers complete this report is to gain stakeholder insight in building and promoting a positive workplace culture and team engagement. A critical analyzation and identification of the case study material:
- Two key benefits that Caltex will achieve from having a more positive workplace and more team engagement:
- One of the benefits that Caltex can achieve by having a more positive workplace and more team engagement is employee turnover. This will help Caltex to retain and gain their employees trust and loyalty. Also, it will help them to motivate their employees to do their job in a right manner.
- In addition to increasing employee turnover for Caltex because of positive workplace, it will give a health benefit to each individual within the organization by diminishing the stress in the workplace.
- Two key factors that will help Caltex in building and promoting positive workplace and team management.
- One of the key factors that will help Caltex to promote and build a positive workplace is supporting each other within the organization. This will help to ease the burdens, difficulties, and having a bad day of an individual. Being compassionate and supportive to each other within the organization will ease the tiresomeness and the dullness in the workplace.
- Also, everyone within the organization should promote a positive communication towards each other. This is one of the key factors to promote a positive workplace and team engagement. Promoting positive communication means the treatment of people within the organization. This means treating people with respect and kindness towards their different beliefs, views, and culture and appreciation of everyone’s success.
- Two barriers that Caltex faces in building and promoting positive workplace and team management.
- In self-analyzation of Caltex, one of the barriers to promote positive workplace and team management is resistant to change. Most of the people within the organization are complacent on how the organization works and the culture. Somehow, the organization decides to change the culture, it will be difficult for the people who are resistant to change because, some people are not a risk-taker and anti-social.
- One of the biggest barriers for Caltex will be miscommunication. There are a lot of instances wherein the people within the organization are miscommunicated regarding important details about the organization. Relaying information across the organization is vital and key factor to the success of the organization.
- Based on your identification of benefits, factors, and barriers, your overall understanding of theory and practice of organizational culture, and your research into Caltex, evaluate whether you consider your recommendations will make a difference to Caltex.
- As of the current events, Caltex Australia is one of the leading companies in Australia. As an assumption, the organization must have a well-organized and established culture within the organization. The people constituting the organization are adept in different aspects of the organization. Evidently, the organization has massive success in terms of expansion and profitability based on the organization’s financial statement. However, no organization is perfect. Learning and challenges are always an area to improve and developing the organization to its full capability. Moreover, each organization has its own management styles and approach. Thus, the theories and practice of organizational culture as discussed on the previous page, are recommendable as the key is consistency. Every organization desires a well-organized, positive, and team engagement workplace, which the organization tend to leave unnoticeable because of other matters within the organization.
Predominantly, identifying the people and their influence towards an organization can be an advantaged and factors to the success and achievement of the organization. Thus, a critical analyzation of the organization’s information within the organization is vital process for the organization in decision-making and solving-problem. In addition, the process of learning within the organization is significant in every individual across the organization. The theories and practices for the betterment of the organization’s culture are helpful as to enhance the capabilities of everyone at an individual and organizational level. Moreover, these theories and practices serve as a guidance to demonstrate the acceptable behaviours, attitudes, and traits in the society. All the theories and practices are helpful tools to enrich the social and cultural aspects of an individual and the organization. Hence, each individual and the organization must be socially and culturally accepted despite the differences in the society culturally. Furthermore, the organization’s culture must be ethically accepted by the international community to ensure the credibility of the organization. It entails a professional manner and ethical deeds to achieve the organization’s vision and mission with the collaboration of different organization and individual. Notwithstanding, the demonstration and manifestation of social and culture acceptable behaviours, attitudes, and traits constitute a positive and agreeable work environment. It will be beneficial for the organization as it will increase the value of employees and the brand of organization in the society.
As the organization continues to expand its markets and business, there might be hindrances and difficulties throughout achieving the organization’s goal, but with positivity, knowledge, and organized-learning of the organization can be achieved. As a recommendation based on a critical and profound research, the organization can be achieved more by consistently applying and maintaining the rules, ethics, and professionalism in social and cultural acceptable manner. The behaviours, attitudes, and traits for organizational learning can be achieved through each individual and within the organization. Overall, learning is a continuous process that entails a profound and organized internal reflection of one’s self. The success of the organization starts not within the organization, but within everyone in the organization.