Academic Master



Wright, Zyad. “Hate Crimes: Clarification from Emotion Theory and Psychological Research.” UCLA J. Islamic & Near EL 15 (2016): 55.

In his book, Zyad Wright focuses on the goals to emphasise and analyze critically in various legal issues, historical, economic, civil, commercial and social which are particular relevance to the Muslims and the near eastern for both the non-Muslim and Muslim society. Hence the work will present the issues that relate to the laws of the region and the respect to the peoples and counties effects for the area and also worldwide. The author goes ahead to discuss the rules which are affected by the people of the Near East and the outside region. Therefore representing the issues which relate to the theoretical aspects of the Islamic jurisprudence law and its application. Since the community is not considered to a static geographical region, his work has adopted a broad policy from serving submission n case basis and also history in order to undermine its relevance. The author argues about political and moral grounds which criminalize disgust and prejudice are to direction from an entailed theory for an unlawful punishment into a character-positioned theory.

However, the author narrates the concept of the natural law as one of the fundamental rules that are associated with the Islamic law. In his work, Zyad Wright sheds light towards the problems and also exposes the traditional natural law through the legal theories of various pre-modern Muslim jurists. In doing so, Zyad Wright discloses the distinction between the soft and hard naturalist whereby natural law differs from the perspective of theology as the point of finding an ultimate common ground towards their ideas. For Zyad Wright, the conception the natural law anxieties to the extent that reasons are given to the ontological authority hence to help determine the normal opposed to the textualist method on law production. Various stakeholders in law enforcement are discussed in details thus helping the reader to understand the community and the way of solving range issues that emerge upon themselves. Hence, Zyad Writes ambitious to his goals and, more important as he presents a comprehensive reading for the struggles and tests to helped convince the reader about the actual genuineness for the natural law tradition among the traditional Islamic legal theory which he presents. The work is therefore composed three of the main criticisms of hate crime statutes are based on limited understandings of the causes, elements and effects of hate crimes. Research from psychological studies and insights from emotion theory can dispel some misconceptions about hate crimes, which are predominantly not caused by emotional states. Other important factors such as group dynamics and cognitive beliefs must also be considered. The work is detailed and analyses various situations in matters pertaining law, hence recommended for the readers interested in learning law into details.

Walfield, Scott M., Kelly M. Socia, and Ráchael A. Powers. “Religiously motivated hate crimes: reporting to law enforcement and case outcomes.” American journal of criminal justice 42.1 (2017): 148-169.

The author of the paper describes the hate crimes as more serious crimes that have great consequences for the community and the victims. However, this paper will briefly outline the hate crimes, their history and the progress of the corresponding statutes. It reconstructs various dominant criticisms of hate crime laws. Firstly, contests the unique status and required proof. Secondly rejects the hate crime laws from a liberal perspective on the basis that they punish emotional states. Ideally, criticism of these statutes considers them unconstitutional because they punish motive. Indeed, the work argues that ambiguity over the causes, proof and effects of the hate crimes has clouded scholarly and legal discussion. In the United States, the various scenarios at the federal level as offences ‘motivated by discrimination based upon the actual or perceived race, colour, religion, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability. This implies to the victim even with the massive rise of the religious hate crimes; only little has been discovering about their origin and running of this crime within the community, as the author describes. Hence fewer factors have been considered to the source of these crimes when reporting the law enforcement a various outcome cases. This study utilizes the utilizing examination by the national crime persecution analysis, together with the National incident-based reporting for the individuals, incident characters and the offenders while reporting the case outcome regarding the law enforcement. The study gives analysis on the percentage ratio by which the law enforcing agencies perception is perceived response regarding the crimes. The study, therefore, examines the number if the variables associated to the significance of the offence as allied with the reporting arrest for the showed large outcome sizes.

The misnomer of ‘hate crime’ has led many to mistakenly criticism their associated statutes as punishing emotional states, motives, or thoughts. In the case of hate crimes, the means real elements of motivation and intent cannot be separated to the extent that critics suggest. Significantly, scholarship has too often mistaken the legal definition of a hate crime with the scientific explanation for why the offence occurs. Discussion over the desirability of hate crime statutes must be shifted from a misguided consideration of motives to an assessment of the uniquely detrimental psychological effects of these offences on victims. The work is refined to assist the reader in understanding the various inclusivity related to reporting laws and the cases outcome. Thus I recommend the work for entire members of the public who are interested in law enforcement.

Saletan, William. “The Muslim Case For Free Speech.” Slate Magazine. N.p., 2012. Web. 11 Mar. 2018.

The author, work involves argument, analyses, and research strategies which comes from various religious-based concepts which provide new ideas and skills plus insights for the readers. The work constitutes information showing several Islamic states have converged before the United Nations to ask for restrictions upon expression freedom. The author talks about the “The innocence of Muslim” which is a feel that directed towards insult to Mohamed the prophet and even sparked riots all over the world. In his work, Saletan describes how the west was lectured concerning the Muslim sensibilities and the tolerance limit regarding blasphemy. Actually, he represents the address and rebellions to paint a picture of a culture that is sensitive from the freed free speech which creates a misleading picture. He goes further to illustrate how small groups are working negatively towards the Muslims.In the current situations, the Muslim rebels never show up on the television since they never riot. They are indeed small minority within the Muslim group. Although with the assistance from the Arab Spring and international communications technology they are making more significant cases for tolerance. The author supports his work by quoting the latest affront to Islam whereby categorically described their words and thoughts which are worth’s in coexisting time. Hence the writer describes the best ways to defy hatred through convincing the arguments, free debate and right actions. Therefore configures a variety of activities that can be done to fight hatred without the ideals speech restriction. Whereby he argues that any organization be it government or religious institution should be son the first hand to condemn hate and set the best example. The author goes ahead and describes how the government is involved in blasphemy laws abuse on its intentions to favor some groups. Therefore, the writer Cleary describes the context by which the government restricts the religion, distinct and freedom of expression which impacts to devastating consequences to those individuals while their perception regarding religion is hence differing from the minority faith adherents. Therefore the work is composed on describing the religious hatred and the commitments needed to fight hate crimes which can be accomplished through intellectual and interfaith dialogue.



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