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Bender Gestalt Test (BGT)

In 1938, Lauretta Bender developed the BGT. It is a test that essentially assesses visual and motor functioning. It also evaluates developmental disorders and neurological impairments in children three years and older. It is one of the most widely used tests in psychological assessment.

The BGT-I has been developed using the theoretically derived multidimensional approach (Butcher, Bubany & Mason, 2013). Lauretta Bender utilized the designs that she took from the work of a Gestalt psychologist named Max Wertheimer. She describes nine of Wertheimer’s configurations and her adaptation of them. Why BGT is multidimensional? It is because it assesses numerous domains, such as:

  • Visual motor skills,
  • Visual perception,
  • Memory and attention (Marnat, 2009)

However, the uni-dimensional approach has been used in the construction of BGT-II. Moreover, an additional analysis known as ‘Rasch’s analysis” has been used in the construction of BGT-II (Linicare, 2005).

“The Rasch model, named after Georg Rasch, is a psychometric model for analyzing categorical data, such as answers to questions on a reading assessment or questionnaire responses, as a function of the trade-off between (a) the respondent’s abilities, attitudes, or personality traits and (b) the item difficulty.”

The mathematical theory behind the Rasch model is the Item Response Theory, which has been used in the construction of many tests. However, unlike IRT, the Rasch model is created from the obtained data (Bond, 2001). Moreover, by using Rasch’s analysis, it was decided that the significantly easier and more difficult items needed to be extended along the measurement scales, i.e., the low and the high ends. This means that Rasch analysis was used to extend the measurement scale.

Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT)

WRAT was developed by Joseph F. Jastak to extend the work of David Wechsler. At first, it was created as an unpublished assessment instrument, but the first published version came out in 1946. It provides a comprehensive assessment of academic performance. According to the sources that I have looked up, WRAT seems to be based on a Content-Based approach to test construction. It includes a combination of rational and correlational statistical methods. There is no theory behind its development. Instead of any theory, the items were created subsequent to any connection with a model, and after the generation of items, these in WRAT-IV by content analysis of WRAT-III. The test construction here also follows the IRT analysis.

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

David Weschler published the WAIS in 1955. It was a revision of the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale. The WAIS was designed to measure intelligence and cognitive ability in adults. Wechsler contemplated a theory about intelligence and called it “multifaceted” since the start of test construction. He generated some items based on his theory, which denoted various aspects of intelligence. Those domains of intelligence are then assessed. Later, he asked the test takers to give their responses to those items (Kline, 2005). According to Wechsler, intelligence is a global entity and is specific, and he utilized his clinical expertise to create the items (Coalson & Raiford, 2008).

As evident from the above-mentioned description, WAIS was developed by using a theoretically derived multi-dimensional approach. However, the recent version has been developed using the Factor Analysis approach. As per a few studies, there is support for rationale in factor analysis. Hence, WAIS has three basic factors: memory, verbal performance, and perception. Furthermore, there are two minor factors (Cohen, 1957).

Adaptive Behavior Assessment Scale (ABAS)

The ABAS was developed by Patti Harrison & Thomas Oakland in 2000. The method that is used in the construction of this scale is the Construct-Oriented Sequential System. According to this system, the first step is to define a construct based on some theoretical grounding. Later, an item pool should be generated, and then the factor analysis should be applied to that item pool. This is to ensure the homogeneity of the construct (Butcher, Bubany & Mason, 2013).

ABAS uses the theoretical construct of ’ the American Association of Mental Retardation. In addition to that, it uses the ten skills to produce an item pool that, at first, included 1500 items. Those 1500 items were then divided into 460 items which were for infant pre-school forms. Out of which 789 items were for children of school and adults, These were reviewed who were well-informed about intellectual disabilities and developmental psychology. Anyhow, after choosing the item pool, additional factor analysis was done to see if ABAS has a one-factor model or a three-factor model. The one-factor model means the overall adaptive functioning. Lastly, the results showed that ABAS has a one-factor model homogenous construct. (Harrison & Oakland, 2003).


Bond TG, Fox CM. Applying the Rasch model: fundamental measurement in the human sciences. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 2001

Brannigan, G.G, & Decker, S.L. (2003). Bender-Gestalt II Examiner’s Manual. Rolling Meadows, II: Riverside Publishing.

Cohen, J. (1957). A factor-analytically based rationale for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21(6), 451-457.

Groth-Marnat, G. (2009). Handbook of psychological assessment. John Wiley & Sons.

James N. Butcher, Shawn Bubany, and Shawn N. Mason (2013). Assessment of Personality and Psychopathology With Self-Report Inventories

Linacre J.M. (2005). Rasch dichotomous model vs. One-parameter Logistic Model. Rasch Measurement Transactions, 19:3, 1032

Wertheimer, M. (1923). Laws of organization in perceptual forms. First published as Untersuchungen zur Lehre von der Gestalt II, in Psycologische Forschung, 4, 301-350. Translation published in Ellis, W. (1938). A sourcebook of Gestalt psychology (pp. 71-88).

Wilkinson, G. S., & Robertson, G. J. (2006). Wide Range Achievement Test 4 professional manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment



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