Autism or Autism spectrum disorder alludes to the scope of conditions portrayed by challenges with social abilities, dreary practices, discourse and nonverbal correspondence, and additionally by interesting qualities and contrasts. We now realize that there isn’t one extreme autism yet numerous types, caused by various mixes of hereditary and natural impacts.
The expression “range” mirrors the wide variety of difficulties and qualities controlled by every individual with extreme Autism. Autism’s most-clear signs tend to show up between the age of 2 and 3. Sometimes, it can be analyzed in the child with an age of a year and a half. Autism urges guardians with worries to look for assessment immediately, as early mediation can enhance results.
In this thesis, we are comparing a child having autism, Global Development Delay.
Global Developmental Delay (GDD) is a disorder that occurs in a child between the development period of birth and 18 years of age. It is described by the child having a low functioning of intellect as compared to a child who is perceived as normal.
James, six years old, lives with his father and aunt. The problems he is faced with are;
- He can’t use the toilet so he uses nappy while the normal child of his age can use toilet easily.
- He gets frustrated easily as compared to a normal kid and can’t speak properly.
- He is more sensitive than any other normal kid, and his IQ is also less than a kid of his age.
- . He has speech cards – I want, I see, I like, I don’t like.
- Doesn’t know the difference between a boy or girl and he has just started to share his toys with others.
All these conditions show that he is suffering from ASD, Autism spectrum disorder.
ASD is the name used for a specific set of developmental and behavior related problems and the challenges ascribed to these challenges. A diagnosis of Autism Spectrum disorder means that the child is suffering from social, communication and playing skills challenges.
It is also possible that he has some confidence problem which makes him slower in every task he does yet another reason can be that he is perfect, but he can’t understand and learn the language in the proper way as the other child. There might be two reasons for James Challenges.
Echolalia (also known as echologia or echophrasia) is described as the repetitive behavior of vocals made by other person but by the same person its called Palilalia. It is an automatic behavior.
Echolalia can characterize as immediate vs. delayed behavior in response to a stimulus. Immediate echolalia is the result of immediate recalling of info from short memory and “superficial linguistic processing.”
- Mild Cognitive Impairment. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) causes a noticeable hinderance in cognitive skills like memory storage and thinking ability.
Some signs of Cognitive impairment are:
- Generic Confusion ( Ascribed to his frustrating behavior)
- Poor motor-coordination ( Lacking in playing skills)
- Short-term or long-term memory loss(Challenges with speaking)
- Confusion about identity or gender
- Impaired judgment
Chomsky and Skinner theory of development:
B.F Skinner a Behaviorist by profession argues that acquiring a language is a learned behavior. Skinner and Chomsky believe that a child learns by associating events. This type of learning is known as classical conditioning. Another way of learning is Operant conditioning where one learns through observing and imitating.
These theories explain that the acquisition of language occurs when infants learn to associate sounds with objects vice versa.
Linguist and philosopher Noam Chomsky (conceived in 1928) has added to how behaviorists like Skinner consider dialect advancement. Chomsky trusts that babies and kids learn dialect at a speed that can’t just be clarified by the laws of behaviorism. As indicated by Chomsky, kids learning dialect set up words together in new ways, making significant sentences they have never heard. Chomsky contends that kids learn standards of dialect and apply them in their particular manner, frequently erroneously at first. Since youngsters would not have heard grown-ups utilizing guidelines of dialect so erroneously, Chomsky concocted another hypothesis on dialect improvement.
Normal Language Development:
Language learning is a natural process which a child can learn from its surrounding and start learning and with passage of time he get to know that how to speak and convey his message to other mostly child learn his mother language as he pass most of his time with her mom so he get her language and speak in her accent this is the normal language development cycle in which a person speaks in that way as his surrounding speak and he acquires the same accent but when someone has Autism disorder then the situation is different, and this is special case and this child will not learn in same way as normal as autism disorder is of different type it is possible that he will learn but cannot speak in proper way as a normal child can speak when a child has Autism then he get any type of disorder and it is possible that It effect on the general cycle of normal language development as a large amount of child’s are having this issue so some country have work on this point to get their children’s out of it by arranging workshop to identify the main point of this issue and get the children’s out of it because those child having problem with confidence can be rid out of it easily increasing confidence by taking part in many activities which can increase the confidence and this can make their communication better and focus problem is also get removed by many ways, and there are many activities which can do better this problem of child.
Self-injurious behavior and Nutritional effect:
Self-injurious behavior has been studied extensively in children with mental retardation, but less research has been conducted on children with autism (Oswald, Ellis, Singh, Singh, & Matson, 1994). McClintock, Hall, and Oliver (2003)
Some children with autism may have inadequate nutrition as a result of their limited diets (Raiten & Massaro, 1986; Williams et al., 2000). This is also a problem some child get this problem because the negligence of their guardians which are not taking care of them properly in the way in which they have to be, and this is the reason of spreading this disease it’s not only about the food. Confidence is also the first e build by family in their Childs and family should have to work on their Childs to increase their confidence and make them able to elaborate and express their feelings and communicate in proper way child who speaks well will also take part effectively in social development which is fruitful for the whole society and country and those child which are suffering from this autism can’t speak well and don’t take any part in the activities who support social development and it is said by many doctors and specialist that good health and proper diet is very important in effective communication and to deal with SLCN so it’s obvious that first thing is mother or family who can deal with this problem because when child don’t get attention and basic confidence from family he get lack of confidence and other disorder which can act as a language barrier in communication and there are many types of disorder which can occur with a child having autism, and there could be many reasons for this disease in child might be he have lack of confidence and this is the reason for this disease and it’s also possible that he has some food problem and don’t get proper nutrition which it’s body need to grow .
Evaluation of factors affecting pupil’s development:
Signs that show child’s school performance is affected:
Children with communication issue as often as possible perform at a poor or inadequate scholastic level, battle with perusing, experience issues understanding and communicating dialect, misjudge meaningful gestures, abstain from going to class, indicate misguided thinking, and experience issues with tests.
Trouble in figuring out how to tune in, talk, read, or can come about because of issues in dialect advancement. Issues can happen in the creation, perception, and attention to dialect at the sound, syllable, word, sentence, and talk levels. People with perusing and composing issues additionally may encounter troubles in utilizing dialect deliberately to convey, think, and learn.
Problem both speech and communication
It is obvious that a child can learn language from it’s surrounding and if his parents don’t give him proper time it will take more time in language development as compared to normal child who can do this process in short time and start speaking in good language which is a good thing and effective and beneficial for society and he can support society in better way as compared to other child who can’t speak in proper way as it is calculated that 7 percent of child are suffering from this disease so it can’t be ignore because it’s a large number of child and it they are ignored at this time this will not good for society in future as they will not do effective communication in future and don’t beneficial for society and it will effect on the progress of country as country depends upon the youngsters and this child having problem with communication can’t do anything in proper way as they have problem with communication which is the most important thing in every field of work.
There are many places where schools don’t exist, and parents are only responsible for language development and all those factors which can effect on communication like confidence, proper diet and all the techniques which are useful for learning. Parents and surroundings are responsible for doing for their children’s and this Childs having issues can’t take part in any activities properly and are not able to support society in any way and this disease can make hindrance in child learning process in addition to language and child start to lose focus and confidence as compare to ordinary child having no problem from any aspects and this things is not good for this child family and even for society because when a child doesn’t focus when someone is teaching something or even when he has some problem with language he can’t learn anything in proper way and this disease can effect his learning process and in same way it’s effect on confidence and he can’t elaborate his feelings and what he wants to say to other, and this makes the child less beneficial for anyone associated with child as compared to another child who can elaborate whatever he wants to say and have good focus and good learning skills
Some countries make communication friendly school to make the child more confident and get this barrier away for them, and this type of things are better things than anything to remove this disease away from a child because in every country many of children are having this disease. It is observed that primary 9 percent child has this disease which is the worst thing.
Speech-Language Pathology Service:
Speech-language pathology administrations can enable children to end up plainly successful communicators, issue solvers, and decision makers. Because of administrations, for example, memory retraining, psychological redesign, dialect upgrade, and endeavors to enhance extract considering, youngsters can profit by a more effective and fulfilling instructive experience and also enhanced associate connections. The administrations that discourse dialect pathologists give can enable kids to beat their handicaps accomplish pride and confidence, and find significant parts in their lives.
SLCN (Speech Language Communication Needs) Sometimes some child get problem in communication they don’t have any medical issue, but a communication barrier exists there, and due to this they can’t use properly speech and have communication in proper way as they must have and it’s not a disease which can’t be handle by a doctor this might be a fear which can make them uncomfortable while talking but this is not directly related to Autism which is a disease and cannot be a language barrier and not related to language only it can effect on nearly all nature, and general reaction of a person become change and he get temper early than a normal person and always remain in a frustration which can make him weak and slow than a normal person and even SLCN has various types and the people having this behavior are not having the same problem in every place where they get in touch with this problem.
In children with mental retardation, aggression is related to gender, age and expressive communication (Ando & Yoshimura, 1978; McClintock et al., 2003) Child having this problem must have some factor and those were the reason that the child is suffering from this language barrier and it can be minimized by identify the issue and do some strategy to get child away from this problem. The child may have a problem with listening then it can be resolve with by focusing on this issue from all the aspects which are the main reason for this problem and then resolve this issue. Might it is related to social skill and the person have some socially depression from its surrounding which is the reason of this communication barrier and have some lack of confidence from society which make hindrance in his communication and it mostly occurs in children because they mostly get jealous from other child and this makes lack of confidence in their personality.
Sometimes a child doesn’t do focus on what other said, and that’s become a communication barrier because when someone is not a good listener and cannot respond properly as compared to a normal child having good focus. Focus is the main point that how can you understand what other is saying and then how can you respond to that person and good approach on language is also necessary for good communication if child doesn’t understand properly that what other is saying then child can’t respond properly and learning strategies must be applied on those child having this SLCN and other problems related to communication to get them out from this problem in proper way There are numerous anecdotal reports of violence and aggression in people with autism spectrum disorders, particularly Aspersers’ syndrome, but little systematic research concerning its frequency and character has been published (Kohn, Fahum, Ratzoni, & Apter, 1998; Mawson, Grounds,&Tantam,1985).
They should attain this learning and language related strategies to get out from these learning problems which are related to SLCN. sometime issue is related to vocal bury which can become a communication barrier after because child cannot have proper words to explain what he is feeling and what he wants to elaborate it also become a barrier which make hindrance while his communication and it’s lie in SLCN and this type of things increase the lack of confidence in child which is also less than other typical child having no problem of any type it is also observed that this disease are mostly occur in the under develop countries in which there are shortage of schools and other workshop where Childs can learn this techniques and develop language because primary schools are mostly responsible for this to educate children and increase confidence at basic level which is very important in childhood and if a child get lack of shortage in this stage then it will never overcome after this which is not useful or beneficial for country and this is also observed that the Childs from under developing countries get things which are not good for this child’s and even for society.
There are some types of autism which can exist in adults too mostly at the last stage of lives, and it is also very difficult to overcome this, and this is also in huge number.90 percent children’s who are identified with Autism have long term difficulties which can’t be overcome and remove by any method (Peter &James, 1978; McClintock et al., 2009), and they are not efficient in anything as compared to other Childs which are normal and good in everything. It is calculated that over one million Childs in the UK have some speech problem when a country like the UK who is developing and provide all the facilities to the Childs which are needed for to remove this language barrier from them and still one million children are unable to talk in proper way then what you think the undeveloped Asian countries which are many years behind from the develop country like the UK what is the condition exists here and how many Childs are unable to talk properly as compared to normal child having no problem .SLCN Is mostly referred as hidden disability and only some aspects of SLCN is visible to other as compared to any other disease which is fully visible to other and can be diagnose and remove easily by any medicine and one more things everyone should be polite to child because fear inner side is also causing stammer and any problem in speech and communication and it is observed that local authorities mostly not interested to do something to overcome this issue because they see it as a local problem with very few numbers because mostly it is not visible directly to people so mostly local authorizes mostly in undeveloped countries don’t do anything to overcome this issue.
There are some policies on this language barrier from big world organizations who work on this type of issues, and they make some policies for all the countries which are associated with these organizations, and they have to follow the rules of these organizations. SLCN is not a big disease which can’t be overcome but it should be identified in early stages and someone should work to remove it from child(Wilton, 2009) so it’s easy to overcome this issue and remove this disease from this child if it identify in early stage when child is in early stage and his parents and other surroundings work on it and take necessary steps to remove this but first the most important is to identify the real problem which is a language barrier and creating problem because it it’s related to confidence then it can be easily overcome and if it’s related to diet it also not a big problem to overcome this issue but if it’s related to any serious disorder of autism then it’s a problem but still it’s not like a disease which can’t be handle.
Primary schools should have a doctor and infrastructure to identify child having any kind of problem related to speech and communication and do the necessary steps to remove it from stem(John,2010 ) it is obvious that this is main responsibility of parents and primary school to overcome this issue if any child have some issue related to speech and communication and there must be some schools in every city which are related to only that Childs which have some issue related to serious disorder of autism which can’t be easily recover with any attention from teacher and parents towards the child and this schools have all apparatus and guidance that how can they deal with this child. Government should make some guidelines for schools to follow for making proper awareness and guidance to overcome this disease which is very harmful to Childs and schools should organize some workshops for parents to guide and aware of this disease and how can they remove this from their child and make their child more confident than before because it’s nearly impossible for the child to overcome this issue by himself and it’s too late for the child when he gets to know that he has some problem with speech and communication. It’s the responsibility of government and parents to identify this problem and take necessary steps to remove this from child and make him beneficial for his family and whole country application of ICT(information communication technology):
Effective communication is stem of every field, and it’s very important things everywhere, and it’s very important to make a child effective in communication and understanding of language is very important in workplace and a working person have no importance and don’t be useful to the company if it’s not good in communication whether it’s understanding or elaboration of communication it’s depend upon the many factors which should be considered for the language development as it is obvious that many things effect on communication and there are many barriers in this field which can make hindrance in communication and person having this problem cannot do effective communication with anyone he wants to do but the most important and effective use of Information Communication Technology is in the business organizations and this process government also have to take part according to need as this process is not applied to individual .This is a general requirement of anyone to speak in a good way and government have to take part in this job by making new universities and make the older one to do this job.
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