Academic Master


Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics


Article Citation and Permalink

(APA format)

Article 1

McPherson, K. E., McAloney-Kocaman, K., McGlinchey, E., Faeth, P., & Armour, C. (2021).

Longitudinal analysis of the UK COVID-19 Psychological Wellbeing Study: Trajectories of anxiety, depression and COVID-19-related stress symptomology. Psychiatry Research, 304, 114138.


Point Description
Broad Topic Area/Title Longitudinal analysis of the UK COVID-19 Psychological Wellbeing Study: Trajectories of anxiety, depression and COVID-19-related stress symptomology
Problem Statement

(What is the problem research is addressing?)

This research paper provides a quantitative analysis of the effect of Covid-19 on psychological issues faced by the adults living in the United Kingdom
Purpose Statement

(What is the purpose of the study?)

The purpose of this study is to reflect upon the noticeable effect of Covid-19 lockdown on the anxiety, depression and traumatic stress level of people living in the United Kingdom by a longitudinal trajectory.
Research Questions

(What questions does the research seek to answer?)

What are the negative impacts of Covid-19 on adults living in United kingdom?

How does Covid-19 effect the psychological wellbeing of the adults in the UK?

Do the trajectories of trauma, anxiety, and depression have increased by Covid-19 lockdown?

The adults living in UK suffered psychological stress in early time span of lockdown or later?

Define Hypothesis

(Or state the correct hypothesis based upon variables used)

Covid-19 has a negative impact on the trajectories such as anxiety, depression and trauma of the adults living in the United Kingdom.
Identify Dependent and Independent Variables and Type of Data for the Variables Dependent Variables: Anxiety, CV19TS, Depression

Independent Variable: Covid-19 related worries

Population of Interest for Study This research was conducted for the adults living in the United Kingdom.
Sample Data was collected from 1958 adults living in the UK.
Sampling Method This research paper includes Longitudinal, multi-wave survey. The participants were enlisted from social media campaigns and online participant panel named Prolific.
Identify Data Collection

Identify how data were collected

The respective research study uses a longitudinal three-wave survey of UK adults. The data was collected entirely online through three-wave survey.
Summarize Data Collection Approach  The research used a longitudinal survey for collecting the data in three waves. The data was collected through growth mixture modelling and logistic regressions.
Discuss Data Analysis

Include what types of statistical tests were used for the variables.

The statistical tests used for the analysis of the variables are growth mixture modelling and logistic regressions. The variables used following statistical tests:

  • Generalized anxiety symptomology was evaluated by using the “Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale”
  • Prior trauma exposure was analyzed by using the “Life Events Checklist for DSM-5”
  • Isolation was evaluated by using the “UCLA Three-Item Loneliness Scale”
Summarize Results of Study According to the results of this study, Covid-19 has differential impact on the mental health conditions of the adults living in the UK. Some adults suffered from psychological stress in early weeks of Lock down, while some adults suffered in later period of lock down.
Summary of Assumptions and Limitations

Identify the assumptions and limitations from the article.

Report other potential assumptions and limitations of your review not listed by the author.

According to the findings of this researcher, mental health support interventions are required to incite improved outcomes for better recovery. The limitation of this research outlined in this article is that the data collected in this research is self-reported (it is meant for future researches but cannot work as a diagnostic function).

According to my views, this research is conducted online, the data collected cannot be entirely reliable and authentic. The following quantitative study provides results on in-depth information on the psychological well-being of the participants. Nonetheless, the researchers require good rapport building for gathering accurate and in-depth information from their participants. I believe the participant could not open up to their researchers while answering their questions. The researchers lack social relationships and face-to-face interaction with their participants.




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