The spiritual sphere is a system of values of a person, his attitudes and beliefs, his moral and moral views and principles. Bio-psycho-socio-spiritual approach in the treatment of any disease is known, as we see, more since the time of Hippocrates. Perhaps for many centuries this approach doctors and doctors used unconsciously. The very Slavic word “doctor” comes from the verb to lie. But only at the end of the last century it became widely used in many countries for the treatment of mental disorders and other functional diseases. Alcoholism and drug addiction have not become an exception. Man is a complex being that consists not only of the body (biological sphere) but also of the social sphere, psychological and spiritual (Moss and Dyer 2010).
It is very important to understand: chemical dependence is a disease. Chemical dependence (alcoholism, drug addiction, substance abuse, etc.) is a chronic, progressive disease characterized by loss of control before drinking alcohol, drugs and other psychoactive substances. Modern science is well aware that chemical dependence is a disease not only chronic, progressive, but incurable. It is incurable, not only because medicine today does not know the means to eliminate the peculiarities of metabolism in the body of an addicted person. But at the same time, you can learn to live with addiction, like with diabetes, while not using chemically active substances and feeling quite healthy (Koob, 2013).
An incurable chemical dependence is also considered because the patient is not able to completely get rid of all his problems: psychological, physical and spiritual. And it is these problems that are the causes of diseases, including drug addiction. That is, it is impossible to recover, but you can recover (Moss and Dyer 2010).
Progressive means that gradually the state of the dependent only worsens over time. And even if a person is in remission for a while (does not use), this does not mean that he can control consumption. With the resumption of consumption, a person quickly enough returns to the same doses and frequency of use. He has the same problems that persecuted him before the remission began (Koob, 2013).
Chronic is, the disease does not go away with time. And at the moment there is no radical remedy for its complete cure. The forecast is in the case of chemical dependence, the prognosis is fatal, if not treated. The disease is fatal. And it’s not even that the dependent can die from liver dysfunction. Dependents often commit suicide. Kill others in domestic disassembly. They die in fires. There are thousands of other deadly dangerous situations (Moss and Dyer 2010).
Physical dependence (Bio) is the physiological need of the body in a regular dose of a narcotic substance. Since the drug is part of the metabolic process, if this substance ceases to enter the body, a person experiences a severe condition – abstinence. And the need for a drug, and the “breaking” in his absence in this case, in no way depend on the will of a person, on the traits of his character or on the properties of his personality – just as, for example, a cough of a patient with tuberculosis does not depend on his desire and his will. If the spiritual or spiritual structure of such a person takes this way of “normalizing” life, then very soon we see a drug addict or an alcoholic before us. Since when using surfactants there is a sharp release of endorphins (euphoria), the brain begins to adapt to this by increasing the number of endorphins that perceive receptors (Koob, 2013). Moreover, over time, all organs get used to functioning only if there is a high level of this substance. Since the brain receives a huge amount of morphine from the outside (opium, codeine, heroin, terrain-code) or gets used to a constant strong stimulation (screw, cocaine, alcohol), then eventually ceases to produce its endorphins and other neurotransmitters (Moss and Dyer 2010).
As soon as the substance ceases to act, a great failure occurs in the body. The organs cannot function normally, and empty receptors require a new dose. Since the organism does not produce its endorphins, the person falls into a severe condition – pain, deep depression, lack of energy, a sense of emptiness, senselessness and so on.
Moss, A. C. and Dyer R. K. (2010). Psychology of Addictive Behaviour (Palgrave Insights in Psychology series) (2010th ed.). Palgrave.
Koob, G. F. (2013) ‘Negative reinforcement in drug addiction: The darkness within’, Current Opinion in Neurobiology, pp. 559–563. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2013.03.011.