Academic Master


Annotated Bibliography on Sociology

Appelbaum, Paul S., and Nicholas Scurich. “Impact Of Behavioral Genetic Evidence On The Adjudication Of Criminal Behavior.” The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 42.1 (2014): 91-100. Web. 22 Feb. 2018.

Certain environmental, cultural, societal, and political aspects are present in every society that impact the community members positively or negatively. In the selected article, the authors explored the relationship between the genes, childhood memories, and criminal behavior of the offenders. Genetic data, its importance, and its implications are introduced in the criminal justice field. The authors identified that childhood abuse, genetic predisposition, and simple impulsive disorder are some factors that impact the lives of the offenders. The results of the study examined that abuse impacts the offenders if they were the victim of any abuse in their lives. The authors tried to argue that genetic evidence could raise criminal behavior. The authors added the factors that the children who became the victims of child abuse are the ones who are more likely to have impulsive disorders and more likely to commit crimes. Violence is another factor that could become part of the nature of the people who face child abuse in their lives. The authors argued that offenders who are facing problems regarding impulsive behavior and face different abuses in their lives should be treated differently in the criminal justice system. They are the ones who face difficulties in controlling their behavior, and there should be less punishment for these people. The pieces of evidence about the history of offenders, their mental state, and their several behavioral factors should be tested appropriately. This study will be helpful for my research project because it is recent and deals with the impact of behavioral genetic evidence on offenders’ criminal behavior.

Rueve, Marie E., and Randon S. Welton. “Violence And Mental Illness.” Psychiatry (Edgemont) 5.5 (2008): 34-48. Web. 22 Feb. 2018.

Violence is a particular behavior that is adapted to hurt anyone intentionally. In the selected article, the authors discussed and explored the relationship between violence and mental illness. The authors analyzed the related literature available and the facts that include the risk factor management and treatment of mental illness and violence. The patients who are having issues with mental illness and violent behavior need care and appropriate treatment so that they can have a normal life in society. The authors added the importance of a psychiatrist who can manage the behavior of patients facing violent behavior and suffering from mental illnesses. These people are the ones who are more likely to act violently and more likely to commit crimes in societies. So, their treatment and care are necessary for the peace of society. The people suffering from issues of violence and mental instability could create problems for their families and relatives, as well as for their community. Mental illness could lead to violent behavior and increase the risk for the general people. The authors find out that there is a strong relationship between violent behavior and mental illness of the people. The people who are suffering from any addiction such as substance addiction, and the ones facing the personality disorders are the ones who are more likely to commit the crimes and act violently to the general people. The treatment of these people is the most appropriate solution for the peace and welfare of any society. This study is valuable for my research study as it explains the link between violence and the mental illness of the offenders. So, offenders with mental illness are more likely to be violent and more likely to commit crimes, and they should be treated differently than normal offenders.

Sossamon, Jeff. “Criminal Offenders With Genetic Mental Disorders Judged More Negatively.” N.p., 2017. Web. 22 Feb. 2018.

The people who faced abuse in their lives faced any mishap, suffered from any mental disorder, or suffered from any circumstances that impacted negatively on their personality are the ones who need proper attention and treatment. It is a fact that criminals are the ones who have a sad past and disturbing childhood history. These offenders need extra care and special treatment so that their behavior can change and their behavior cannot lead to adverse conditions. But unfortunately, the criminal justice system acts in reverse in this case. Criminal offenders having a genetic mental disorder history do not get any extra care but face more negative behavior from the system and their people. The author added that a research study by the University of Missouri presented some facts that offenders with genetic mental disorders are judged more negatively as compared to the ones who are mentally disturbed due to their life circumstances. The article’s author also explains why genetic and mental instability is not related to environmental and societal circumstances. Genetic mental disorder patients are not the ones who face difficulties, abuse, or any other violent behavior in their lives that leads them to commit crimes. In the scenarios of other people who faced abuse, mental stress, or any trauma in their lives, they are the ones who suffered in their lives, and this leads them to commit crimes. These main reasons distinguish both kinds of offenders. This study is useful for my research as it provides evidence that genetic and nongenetic mental illnesses are different from each other and impact differently on the lives of the offenders.

Eagleman, David. “The Brain On Trial.” The Atlantic. N.p., 2011. Web. 22 Feb. 2018.

In the modern world today, several new techniques and technologies are introduced that analyze the aspects of the human brain system. Neuroscience suggests that criminal acts and behavior result from many aspects. Abuse, bad childhood memories, bad incidents, difficult circumstances, and any traumatic condition could develop criminal behavior and lead to committing criminal activities. In the selected source, a neuroscientist explored these aspects and showed that the criminal justice system is adopting new techniques and implementing new measures that could enhance the law and order situation. Humans are the ones who have power over their behavior, and they can control their impulsive behavior. But in some cases, some or many environmental and societal aspects could negatively impact the nature of the individuals, which leads them to face mental disorders, violent behavior, and severe impulsive disorders. All brains are different and react differently to situations. Similarly, in the criminal justice system, several offenders face punishments due to their mental instability and impulsive behavior. But these are the ones who do not fall into the category that includes the people who are mentally stable and never faced any difficulty in their lives, but they commit crimes. There should be some distinction between these two categories, and there should be less punishment for the ones who are not mentally stable. In the criminal justice system, officials and administrations consider these approaches to apply appropriate laws to these people. This study is valuable for my research project as it provides evidence that environmental and societal factors impact the human brain and that negative impacts lead to mental instability.

Morgan, Robert D. et al. “Treating Offenders With Mental Illness: A Research Synthesis..” Law and Human Behavior 36.1 (2012): 37-50. Web. 22 Feb. 2018.

The selected study is based on the factors that show the treatment of offenders with mental instability. The authors used meta-analytic techniques and explored several studies that allowed them to take appropriate research measures. The rehabilitation measures are needed for the offenders who are suffering from mental disorders. The research explored that the treatment of these offenders is considered a successful measure to reduce criminal behavior and reduce their symptoms of distress. Treatment and rehabilitation measures of the offenders are successful in decreasing the severity of their violent behavior, impulsive behavior, and mental instabilities. The treatment not only impacts positively on the behavior of the offenders who are facing mental disabilities but it also reduces the likelihood of their crime in the future. The authors suggested that not only the criminal justice system should have rehabilitation centers for these people, but communities should also apply different treatment strategies that positively impact the nature of the people suffering from mental disorders. The measurements of the communities and treatment of these people will reduce the likelihood of crime occurring in their societies and encourage the peace of the societies. In the criminal justice system, offenders who have mental disorders need treatment measures and should be granted due to their condition. It will help them reduce their criminal activities, improve their behavior, reduce the risk of future crime, and reduce their violent behavior. These people need extra care and should have long sentences and punishments. This study will be effective for my research project as its results suggest that treatment and rehabilitation facilities are required for offenders who are mentally unstable. It impacts positively on their criminal nature.



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