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Annotated Bibliography On History

Jackson, Anna, and Amin Jaffer. 2004. Encounters. London: V & A.

Vasco de Gama set to cruise in 1497 on a journey for profoundly prized flavours from the east. His disclosure of the ocean course to India built up, for the first time, coordinated contact between Europe and East Asia. Europeans needed to negotiate with nearby rulers to get ideal conditions for exchanging exercises; this happened upon their arrival in Asia. Such transactions requested an understanding of the frequently complex neighbourhood political traditions, such as prostrating the king and perceiving his authority. Europeans, moreover, had to set up a validity with Asian rulers who had no way of confirming what they said was correct. In order to demonstrate their authenticity, authorities arrived with the shape of a letter from the concerned authorities. Presenting gifts that were of a unique nature was one of the steps that strengthened the diplomatic missions. In return for this, Asians gave presents to their outside guests (Foreign). Motivated by their own trade and to form alliances, some sent embassies to the West.

Martin, Meredith. “Mirror Reflections: Louis XIV, Phra Narai, and the Material Culture of Kingship.” Art History 38, no. 4 (2015): 652-667.

In September 1686, Louis XIV of France welcomed the ambassadors of King Siam with great honour. Exchanges were made with the main purpose of establishing and opening up the gates of trade. The main objective of this paper is to re-investigate the past with objects, especially French prints that depicted the diplomatic receptions which were held at Versailles and Ayutthaya. Precious metal items and notable mirrors were presented as gifts at these courts. The images and objectives both showed the purposes of Louis XIV and Phara Narai, which enabled every monarch to be established with specific protocols for one another. Both of them had the same notion of commerce and kingship, which they have facilitated continuously. The metals presented as gifts were of such quality that they can be turned into currency whenever is needed, these metals were personally favored by Louis XIV.

Aboga-Liao, Atty Joanna Marie. “Siam’s Foreign Policy and Diplomacy during Colonial Period.”

This paper mainly focuses on the foreign policy of Siam and its relations with other foreign powers during the colonial period. The paper explains that Siam is working towards avoiding colonialism by undertaking imperial relations that have conquered its neighbours, who once were its trade partners. It was Mongkut who started up the country for trade with other countries. He knew that in order for his country to prosper, he had to sacrifice something. Siam proved to be a buffer state because of the policies and domestic reforms implemented. Mongkut and Chulalongkorn knew exactly about the conditions in their neighbouring states. This knowledge has led them to foresee the number of sacrifices they have to make for their country to prosper. In the end, Siamese foreign policy was a play of self-preservation.

The Second Empire and Siam

In the grand ceremony of Sal de Bal, Napoleon received a Siamese embassy that involved the possession of ambassadors, lavishing gifts and sumptuous gifts. After five years, the Franco-Siamese Treaty of Friendship was signed. A ceremony was held where they invited a French translator (Father la Renaudie) so that he could translate what was being said in the ceremony. The purpose of the ceremony was to re-establish the diplomatic relation between Siam, which is now known as Thailand, and France. Such relations between Siam and Louis XIV began to fight Dutch trading powers and its East India Company around the Indian Ocean. However, till the nineteenth century, Siam remained cut off from the Western powers. The treaty signed with France was redefined where the import-export duties were in favour of Western power traders. This redesigned treaty also removed the monopolies held by senior officials of Siam. In the 1850s, the signing of treaties allowed European merchants to develop a large merchant population in Siam.

Aphornsuvan, Thanet. “The West and Siam’s quest for modernity: Siamese responses to nineteenth-century American missionaries.” South East Asia Research 17, no. 3 (2009): 401-431.

The paper investigates the encounters that were held in the nineteenth century between Westerners and the Siamese. It has been contended by the author that the Westerner does not possess superior Western knowledge, which makes it Western as such, but rather, it was an outcome of the Siamese elite political powers with reference to its intellectual and physical powers. The Buddhist political ideas and the truth of Theravada Buddhism were the key sources on which the adoption of Western knowledge has been measured. Western information and science have hence given the administering classes with the cutting edge decrement of both Western information and science and the world. All things considered, the strong determination of Siamese social relations eventually avoided total modernization and innovation, which, in this manner, finished up in the hands of the elite and did not amplify to the more extensive people.

Riello, Giorgio. “‘With Great Pomp and Magnificence.’” Chapter. In Global Gifts: The Material Culture of Diplomacy in Early Modern Eurasia, edited by Zoltán Biedermann, Anne Gerritsen, and Giorgio Riello, 235–65. Studies in Comparative World History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017. doi:10.1017/9781108233880.011.

In September 1686, Louis XIV of France welcomed the ambassadors of King Siam with great honour. This paper considers the role played by the Siamese gifts and their nature, which was unique. As the precious metals presented as gifts can be turned into currency if needed, this is why they were precious. The paper shows how this exchange was just one of a series of exchanges made with the embassies. These gifts have been the key sources in building up a healthy relationship between France and Siam (Thailand). The book Global Gifts explores the role that art and material goods played in political exchanges and diplomatic relations between Europe, Asia, and Africa in the early modern world. Global Gifts established new parameters for studying the aesthetic and material culture of Eurasian relations before 1800.

End Notes

  1. Aboga-Liao, Atty Joanna Marie. “Siam’s Foreign Policy and Diplomacy during Colonial Period.”
  2. Riello, Giorgio. “‘With Great Pomp and Magnificence.’” Chapter. In Global Gifts: The Material Culture of Diplomacy in Early Modern Eurasia, edited by Zoltán Biedermann, Anne Gerritsen, and Giorgio Riello, 235–65. Studies in Comparative World History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017. doi:10.1017/9781108233880.011.
  3. Martin, Meredith. “Mirror Reflections: Louis XIV, Phra Narai, and the Material Culture of Kingship.” Art History 38, no. 4 (2015): 652-667.
  4. Aphornsuvan, Thanet. “The West and Siam’s quest for modernity: Siamese responses to nineteenth-century American missionaries.” South East Asia Research 17, no. 3 (2009): 401-431.
  5. Jackson, Anna, and Amin Jaffer. 2004. Encounters. London: V & A.

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