Johnson, Ernest B. “Bilingualism.” Encyclopedia of American Studies, edited by Simon Bronner, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1st edition, 2016.
In the article, the author focuses on the introduction of bilingualism as well as explaining how it arises in the society. The article is able to explain that bilingualism arises when one gains some level of proficiency in two or more languages. The article also deals with the myth that one ought to have equal proficiency in two languages. The article explains in a conclusive manner the different types of bilinguals in the society. For example, one may be an elite bilingual where they have gained the best understanding of two languages and can use them interchangeably. The information can be termed as current since it deals with the existing issues in language. The author has published the article based on studies conducted in various regions hence it can be termed as credible. The article is very comprehensive in helping the concept of bilingualism as well as how two languages can interact with each other.
Tokowicz, Natasha. “Bilingual Language Processing.” Encyclopedia of the Mind, edited by Harold Pashler, Sage Publications, 1st edition, 2013.
The article by Tokowicz focuses on language processing among the bilinguals. This seeks to study and explain how bilinguals gain the proficiency in the second language. It also focuses on how one can deal with issues such as comprehension and the production skills. One may be confused between the two languages as well as other languages in the environment. The study seeks to understand concepts such as code switching. The article explains that bilinguals may face a number of challenges in using one language without any interference from the second language. Emphasis is also placed on factors such as tasks, selective and non-selective access, second language proficiency, and word characteristics among the bilinguals. The author has focused on an issue that affects the current institutional setting where individuals strive to learn English as their first language. Inclusion of bilinguals in the society is an important aspect in ensuring connection between different languages.
Dumont, Ron, et al. “Bilingual Verbal Ability Tests.” Encyclopedia of Special Education: A Reference for the Education of Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Disabilities and Other Exceptional Individuals, edited by Cecil R. Reynolds, et al., Wiley, 4th edition, 2013
The article focuses on a very important aspect in understanding bilingual languages. The author has addressed the use of verbal ability tests in understanding the manner in which individuals process the two languages in use. The ability tests focus on the development of children from the age of five years until when they achieve adulthood. The tests are crucial in helping understand how bilinguals comprehend and use two languages as they gro. The author also focuses on various tools that can be used to measure the verbal abilities. The tests include picture vocabulary, oral vocabulary, and verbal analogies. The verbal analogies focus on the similarities and differences between two words in different setting and how that can apply to a third language. The author has also used various studies such as the Woodcook-Johnson-Revised study. The article is crucial in the current setting since it helps come up with a comprehensive curriculum addressing the needs of the bilinguals.
Rosa, Ricardo D. “English-Only Movement.” Encyclopedia of Diversity and Social Justice, edited by Sherwood Thompson, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1st edition, 2014.
The article takes a different approach by focusing on the political approach to the bilingual concept. The political class has continually held that citizens should not be allowed to use other languages apart from English. The article explains the formation of the English-Only Movement in the 1980’s. The movement was formed to lobby for the use of the English language in all government operations as well as in institutions. This would ensure the immigrants are forced to abandon their majority languages and adopt English. The approach has been termed as discriminatory since it forces individuals to abandon their languages. The article is a recent publication and addressed an issue that affects many immigrants and should be deal with. The immigrants should be allowed to choose the language they would like to use. The community should also encourage the immigrants to learn English and not force them to adopt new languages.