The colonial economy is a system whose main responsibilities are the consumption and production. This concept is initiated by the colonists in the different colonies all over the world. The purpose was to fulfill the economic demands of the community which included the area of investment, raw materials and the settlements. The basic living style was also considered for example the agriculture, transportation, mining, communication, trade and commerce.
Due to the industrial revolution, many southern as well as western community representatives explained that their regions were colonial economies. They produced comparatively larger number of crops which were transported to the other regions of the country. Industry was installed in those regions because of good expectation of the availability of raw material as well as the labor force. These are some of the most prominent reasons which were discussed in the history and concluded that why were the westerners as well as southerners used to believe that their regions were at that time colonial economies.
The availability of the slave population in these areas also concluded these areas as colonial economies. The use to serve the colonial regions and other areas with the finished products. These areas also maintained and also nurtured an identity completely different from the rest of the region which is also highlighted in the historic compositions.
2-Why did corporations in the West succeed more often than small entrepreneurs?
At the time of very new introduction of industry in the United States, the people from all over the country were hired for the labor as per the progress. The corporations had the support of the United States government in many ways.
The entrepreneurs had no support from anyone and they had to struggle on their own for the survival in the market. The corporations were mostly headed by the whites and they have a great financial support from the government because of which they were never seen to be ending. Moreover the ownerships were also distributed and the system was all governed by the government representatives and their personnel relations. The entrepreneurs didn’t found any financial support from the government at that time and they completely depended upon the revenues and the market. Some entrepreneurs ended in a year or two and some struggled till the decade and very few reached to stability.
Since the western governments were more focused on the war, so they required strong industry inside the country in which a higher percentage was in the hands of corporations. They made firearms and war equipment for the war and used to serve the nation and in response the western government paid them comparatively excellent than from another source of income. Also the entrepreneurs also got failed because of their welcoming behavior of new supply of cheap labor which was perceived as cultural and economic threat by native working class.
In a nutshell, the entrepreneurs were completely ignored and they had no exposure to sustainability. The corporation had almost entire business of the nation so there was not a single chance that they would find ignorance at any point.
3-Explain why, despite its vast human and natural resources, the South experienced more severe poverty than the West.
The south was rich in the natural resources as well as a good manpower was available but the people were less skilled and unwilling to consider the industry as their way of earning. The south was also rich in fertile lands and easy to cultivate the crops which was their only living. Since buying slaves was good in increasing the capital and for this purpose the government preferred slaves purchase. Moreover a good number of people moved towards north because of the religious reasons.
Comparatively north had a strong reason to be prosperous in those decades. They had an industrialization support which let them produce the finished products. It lacked in the south and south was only producing cotton which was a raw material for the industries and was directly transported to the north. The black communities were always in conflict with the overseers in working for them.
The concept of share crop started which increased the debates over the masters. This made blacks less confident for the future so they trained themselves for the metal working, construction and other domestic and industrial skills.
Still south always suffered with respect to low economy, unjustified working conditions as well as lack of industrialization. During the slave regime, the white masters didn’t invested much on the technological change as well as they didn’t paid the local community their dues respectively. North comparatively had a good condition. There was higher levels of the industry change and technological innovation which helped the communities over there easily achieved their economic goals.
4-Explain how industrialization affected agriculture in the South and West.
The industrialization had a great impact on the farming and agriculture on the national levels. The farmers from the south started using the machines and other developed ways to harvest their cash crops. The population took necessary steps to expand the boundaries of the newly developed country.
The farmers initially used the dirt roads for their crops to ship from the farms to the market and the distance was almost more than 330 miles. The rapidly developing railway and the infrastructure have boosted the agriculture which was due to the industrialization. In many areas due to the speed processing, small farms collectively became huge commercial lands to grow the crops for the labor working in the industry. After the first implementation of the technology in the farming, it allowed the farmers to grow more food by less efforts.
Technology makes the crops bigger and the farms lager comparatively without it the productivity was very low. These revolutionary movements in the agriculture was before the proper adaptation of the economic as well as political systems. Due to the too much supply of the crops and less consumer ends, the cost of the crop decreased to unacceptable rates which made many farmers to lose their farmers and the others tried to meet ends. The blame was gone to the railroad companies, bankers and the grain suppliers to the market. They made the farming expensive and the crop rates decreased.
5-By comparing and contrasting the cultural values of whites and Indians, explain why it was so difficult for the two peoples to live together peacefully.
While comparing the initial majority of the whites relocated from England to the American lands and met the Native American which were at that time called as Indians, it can be explained that in the time of 17th century the Indians didn’t had any written accounts and the history of the region was maintained by the White writings who visited the region before the relocation of the white community. Therefore it can be concluded that the information produced by the white literature could be unreliable and misleading which could be either done by deliberately or may be unconsciously. The new communities established saw the history through the European’s perspectives.
The whites and the natives were completely different. In discussion to the native Indians, it is described in the history that their culture and religion was total complicated if discussed collectively. Every tribute had a different one according to their localities. The southern England relocated individuals had a lot in common and they shared many things with respect to the habits and lifestyle but still they didn’t tried to live with the Indians and lived in a separate development.
The whites tried negotiations and unexpected selling’s of the Indian cultivated and pre-occupied fertile lands at the very initial stages which made a concept in the minds of Indians for Whites that they are invaders and would enslave them. The Indians had their own chief and they didn’t wanted to work under Whites which caused small conflicts and the two different communities started living separately. Also the Indians disapproved the European Laws and continued following their own traditions and customs.
3.7 STUDY ESSAYS FOR EXAM
1-What contributions did Thomas Alva Edison, George Eastman, and Alexander Graham Bell make to business and industry? How did their contributions promote the rise of industrial systems?
The inventions during the industrialization revolution era had a significant importance and many people contributed in this field as well. Thomas Alva Edison, George Eastman, and Alexander Graham Bell are the people who are remembered by everyone and their inventions and modifications increased the growth of the industry as well as business.
Thomas Alva Edison is considered as the greatest inventor of all times. He was an inventor as well as a businessman. His main invention is the electric light bulb. He also developed the phonograph, the motion picture camera. His inventions were highly appreciated and were considered as the base of all the other sub inventions over these technological enhancements. The long lasting battery and electric bulb was implemented and is even currently being used.
George Eastman had invented the first camera which helped in the promotion of the amateur photography as well as motion picture. George Eastman is responsible for the rise of the amateur photography among the American customers and his enhancements in this field led the photography among the daily life instead of only available in the portrait studio.
The inventor of the telephone could never be forgotten as he invented the better ways of communication. Alexander Graham Bell worked on the refinement of the phonograph as well as he invited the telephone. The nineteenth century was the era of the communication revolution and Alexander Graham Bell’s name is among the best inventions in that time.
2-Why were railroads “America’s first big business”? How did they help to foster a “managerial revolution”?
The first big business in America was the railway construction. From 1860 to 1900, American railway was entirely changed and it helped the industry to develop more rapidly than in the past. Railway was considered as the chief system of the transportation of people, goods and raw-material which is essential for the industry. Since it was the service used by every community, industry, agriculture and livestock as per required so its expansion was highly required and it grew to all distant parts of the country which made it the big business in America at that time.
During the railroads utilization found to be at the peaks in 1873, the railroad executives have tried to decrease the waste as well as stiffen up their operations. The string hierarchies of the management were developed which were seemed to be similar to the military ranks and hierarchies. The railroads were not govern by the government but the board of directors. A major contribution of railway is seen in the industrial revolution.
The managerial revolution was seen at that time as they hired top managers, promoted as well as hired on the basis of only the performance rather than preference. This revolution helped the railway to grow and succeed overall railroads which were managed by the quality managers. The lower level managers also played an important role in managing the core tasks to be completed before the deadlines so that there would not be seen any delay.
3-Compare and contrast the Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor.
The Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor were known to be the two major unions of the labor in the late 1800s. The unions were representing the workers who were being mistreated poorly for a great number of years. With the rapid increase in the industry, it was nearly impossible for the workers to improve their working conditions, increase the pay and decrease the work hours.
The Knights of labors had a number of goals in which the most prominent ones were the representation of the skilled workers as well as unskilled workers. Their goal was to implement the eight hour work day. They also wanted to pay the women equal as men. The child labor was supposed to end and for all these purposes they did a good number of strikes. The increase of the pay for women was seen as an extreme move at that time.
The American Federation of Labor was also made for helping the labor. It was a union of workers and focused on the basic problems that were affecting the labor at all. They were using a little polished technique for discussing the issues with the corporations to conduct a bargain and negotiation. The companies which contracted the American Federation of Labor was supposed to only hire the labor of that union. This unions stayed away from social issues but still bargained for decreasing the working shift timing to 8 hours a day problem.
4-Explain why there were so many strikes between 1875 and 1900 if the real wages of workers were rising.
During the time period of 1870s till 1900, the main problem of the workers was never been the wages but some other factors were causing great problems for the workers and they used to do strikes. One of the main problem of the strikes was that the unskilled and foreign workers were hired with equal wages which enhanced the industry by multiple sizes.
The workers initially used to strike for the decrease of the working hours per day which could be explained simply that they needed to shorten their workday. Later on they also had many other concerns in which the most prominent was that the labor unions were unable to recognize the problems and to discuss them with employers so they did the strike as well. There are many other reasons due to which the American labor used to strike in which the most prominent are the gain or defend control over the work process, improve working conditions, and protest the disciplining of unionists.
The industry was expanded and therefore the owners didn’t try to concern any issues of the workers which resulted in strike as well. The only place which would be considered as a door for a solution of there so many problems which were not considered by the owners of the industry was the labor union which was also no recognizing them. The strikes were also because of the the working conditions because the worst working conditions in overall the history were seen in the American industry of late 1800s.
5-Why did the union movement attract only 12 percent of the labor force by 1900?
Before 1900, in the era of 1850 to so on till 1910 the union movements were helping the workers which were only associated to them and didn’t helped the ones who were independent as well as working in the very rapidly growing other industries. The labor groups like Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor were observed to be too radical and they prominently gave favor and their behavior was seen to be highly radical. This kind of reputation didn’t helped them to find the good labor force to act in their favor for the union movement of 1900. That’s why only 12% of the labor joined them and in that instance the Knights of Labor was completely finished.
The Knights of Labor was responsible for the bomb set off in the Haymarket Square Riot. There were a number of trust breaking promises against the hopes of the labors being made which eventually made the labor and the supporting workers of the Knights of Labor to leave it and eventually the number decreased to inconsiderable. Very limited segment helped the Labor Unions to stand at the 1900s.
After that time, the war started and the labor unions collectively decided not to strike against anything until the war ends which also made a huge number of labor to be aggressive and they left the unions and made many small and deadly strike. The industrialization of America faced a huge number of labor being disturbed by the labor unions as well as employers.
4.6 STUDY ESSAYS FOR EXAM
1-What was the impact of city life on women and African Americans?
There was a positive impact of the city life on the African-American women. The most significant factors who attracted the African-American female population to relocate from the rural areas t the urban residences were the Harlem Renaissance, easy divorce, labor saving devices and consumerism.
Harlem Renaissance inspired the artistic minded people as well as the African American women who preferred the urban boisterous lifestyle. There were outnumbered singers, artists, poets, writers, and designers were found in these women in the cities. The consumerism overall attracted everyone from distinct areas and people use to relocate to cities including the African-American women and men.
One of the most attractive component in the relocation of women was the 1920s law amendments in which the women were not supposed to stay in their homes and they can take divorce from the bad husbands. Due to this, the divorce number increased to double in the America at that time and it never dropped down until now. This was a great advantage for the women to get rid of the cruel husbands but on the other side the family system was also highly disturbed.
Since in the cities, the authorities were active upon domestic issues so women felt secure in the urban areas. The women for the first time in the history found freedom and used to go to the collage on their own choices and jobs accordingly. Resources were limited in the rural areas which led the women to struggle for both managing their household, family and helping their husbands, brothers and fathers.
2-Who were the “new” immigrants and how did they differ from “old” immigrants?
There is a slight difference between the new immigrants and the old immigrants. During the industrial revolution as well as the end of the slavery in the United States, a huge population from different areas of the world started immigration towards the United States.
In past there were no immigrations happened from the southern or eastern Europe so the people who relocated from those parts were called as the new Americans. The people from northern or western Europe are the base of the first immigration so the people even coming in 1900s time period were called as the old immigrants.
The Protestant community (second largest form of Christianity) is considered and known as the old immigrants as they were mostly the English and initially landed on the American soil. The others including the not Protestant–were Catholic, Orthodox, Jewish are all known as the new immigrants. It is believed that some Jews also visited the country in the slavery period but they didn’t stayed and returned.
There was a concept in America that only America was the country with such a modern and technologically advanced industry. The skilled and the literate individuals were supposed to be the old immigrants and the base was made that education is only in American. All the other illiterate as well as unskilled individuals were considered as the new immigrants.
3-What geographic look did modern cities take, and how did they continue to function as they grew to enormous size?
In the year of 1960s many governments used to build ring roads around their cities which helped them to design and redesign the cities according to the increase of the population as well. It is considered that the larger the city would be its difficult to survive in it and the over expansion of the cities is limited in many areas if the world.
The solely improvement of the livable urban settlements is highly dysfunctional in American cities like Los Angeles and New York. These cities are densely populated and these cities are already over expanded and are still increasing their sizes with the rapid increase in the population.
The immigration is also one of the most important factor which causes the over expansion and growth of the cities to enormous sizes. To occupy less space and more residences and workplaces, the multistory buildings were also introduced to be the permanent solution of land expansion of the cities.
In a nutshell it can be concluded that the cities are growing due the geographic looks which are the biggest problem of all over the world.
4-What does the term “Victorian” mean, and how did it affect the development of urban middle-class life?
Victorian is one of the British origin English word which associate to the person who lived in the era of the Queen Victoria. The main effects on the development of the middle class life was that they campaigned energetically for the electoral reform as well as the free trade. By initializing the conditions and circumstances of a good and healthy competition, he Victorians believed that it would definitely be possible. In that era the main purpose which was achieved was that the Victorians were rising up the social ladder.
The main factors which helped in prosperity were the hard works as well as the self-help. They considered both concept as it is the most essential and significantly beneficial for the person’s emotional well-being. The middle class started rising with quite humble beginning and then they proceeded to become the captions of the industry.
The middle class highly concentrated on the self-help, hard work as well as the mental stability. There are some Victorian values for example the humility as well as thrift. The women were considered as superior as men and they were supposed to make some oasis from the tough routines for their husbands so that when they return at the end of the day, they would get a brain wash of all of their tensions and out of the home problems.
In overall the family system and the social structure were the only elements which led the middle class community to develop and sustain their lifestyles.
5-What roles did education perform in the late nineteenth century?
Education was considered as one of the main cause of the national progress. 80 years before a very few communities were able to read and rarely someone was able to write. Education performed a key role in the development of the nation in different fields including the agriculture, industry, transportation and communication.
Initially women were not allowed to go for higher education but after a long period of discrimination, finally the authorities allowed females to attend the university education. The people who graduated stared working on the higher posts and practiced a positive role for the development of the nation overall.
They were highly skilled and worked as literate individuals of the tasks being performed. Due to good understanding as well as awaiting with the jobs education helped a lot number of tasks to be easily perfumed which helped them to understand the problems and the complexity of the work and tried to find ways for solving. The education therefore played an important role in the development of the cities.