State clearly the purpose of this study.
The basic purpose of this study is to see the relationship between confidence level and critical thinking ability in the decision-making process. There are different roles that a nurse pursues and there are multiple new challenges they have to face with changes in workplace settings. These challenges make it necessary for them to think of the higher pattern. This will be helpful in making them accountable and fulfil demands of their profession. The critical thinking ability is helpful in increasing the thought process and takes a decision in emergency time. In addition, when the person feels confident in his abilities, he takes a decision with more confident and rationality.
This study is designed to measure the self-confidence level, the thinking ability, and the role these things play in the decision-making process. If the decisions are taken by taking into consideration these factors, it will result in better clinical implications. The ability of a person to use his cognitive abilities is also important. Especially in healthcare industry when the cases are going through constant changes and nurses have to take instant decision according to the situation. The situational based decision-making should be taught to them to improve their confidence and cognition.
Briefly describe the sampling size.
Sampling size is choosing a number of replicates or observations on which any research will be conducted. It is not possible to measure the traits or qualities of the whole population. Therefore, a representative sample is taken out so that the results can be drawn from their behavior. Then these results are generalized to the whole population. In order to do this, it should be made clear while sampling that it is a true representation of population otherwise it would not be possible to generalize it.
In given study, the sample size is of 83. The target population of this study is graduate nurses. Therefore, the sample was taken from two areas that are a representation of healthcare facilities in Australia. One place is the health service in the regional area while the other one is from the major metropolitan zone. This was done to add diversity to the sample. This sample of 83 nurses was from 11 different countries.
Describe the method of data analysis used in this research.
For analysis of data, the method used in this study is questionnaires. After collection of data, the analysis was done through a spreadsheet of SPSS. The first method used in data analysis was the incorporation of descriptive statistics on raw data and demographic data. The mean, as well as standard deviation, were calculated for both the variables of confidence in decision-making and critical thinking ability. This gave a score of WGCTA and confidence level. Two questionnaires of information were collected from the respondents and one of them included demographic data.
The second method for data analysis made a correlation between confidence in decision-making and critical thinking scores. This is done to see if these variables are related to one another or not. During analysis, the participants were not asked to identify their names or identify so that honesty can be ensured while driving results and conclusion of this study. The purpose of conducting this study was described clearly to every participant to get contribution and support. The confidentiality of data was ensured during the analysis process and permission was granted to all the participants to leave the research anytime. The final analysis was conducted on computer and all the information collected during the process was solely used for research analysis.
Name the research design used in this study.
The research design used for this study is a cor relational method. This correlation is helpful in examining the relationship between variables. For interval level variables, Pearson’s was used while for the variables lying on the ordinal level, Kendall’s was used. Spearman’s Rho was used identify correlation when only one variable was at ordinal level. For the acceptance and rejection of the hypothesis, the significance level of 0.05 was selected. The analysis if the correlation was done using the two-tailed method because there were no directions about existing relationship. The correlation from Pearson’s r was weak and there was a negative relationship. This shows negative relation in critical thinking ability and decision making confidence. This test was taken before the graduates had started their clinical practice. The research design indicated at the end that between confidence level and critical thinking, there is a negative relation and increase in one result in a decrease of other. This design method was selected because it shows better results when seeing the relation between any two variables. The means, as well as standard deviation, were helpful in determining the difference in characteristics and relation of both variables. This correlation design is taken from a descriptive branch of statistics for data analysis.
What techniques are used for data collection in this study?
The main technique for data collection used in this study is a questionnaire. The sample of newly graduated nurses was taken from different areas if health care. The instruments that were used to collect data in this study are as follows.
- A questionnaire for measuring demographics of the sample
- For measuring critical thinking ability, WGCTA was used that is Watson and Glaser Critical thinking assessment tool.
- A scale for measuring confidence in decision-making was used.
The WGCTA is a scale that has 80 items and this is used for measuring the total score for critical thinking ability of an individual. The attitude, knowledge and skills to apply this knowledge and attitudes are measured while analyzing critical thinking ability. It contains two forms that were taken before and after making the intervention. The scale used in this questionnaire was a Likert scale that analyzed 0 with no confidence and 5 as a high level of confidence.
The perception of individual about the confidence in decision-making is measured by using the other scale of “confidence in decision making”. This has gone through pilot testing to check its face validity. This tool was used from Rhodes (1985). This also had a Likert scale with 5 as a high confidence and zero was considered as no confidence level.
Describe the approach used in obtaining the ethics approval
While collecting data for any research, all the ethical issues should be taken into consideration. In this research, there were two questionnaires and one of them included demographic information of participants so ethical consent was necessary. To protect the anonymity, the name and identity of participants were not revealed. This information is not included in the conclusion and results in part as well. The complete purpose of the research was communicated to them so that any issue regarding concealing information would not arise later on. The confidentiality was ensured by providing access to information to only the researcher. There was no payment involved for any time loss or participation and the participants were free to leave the research whenever they want. The data collected during researched was saved in a locked file located in the health facility of the researcher. Questionnaires, computer disks and final analysis were included in data that needs to be protected. It is ensured that this data was not used for any outside purpose. Before completion of the questionnaire, the consent was taken formally from all the participants.
What are the different tools used for this study?
The tools used in this study belong to a descriptive branch of statistics. These tools were used to check the correlation between the variables. Such as the relationship between confidence in decision-making and critical thinking ability was seen by measuring the correlation between these. This show how much they are related to one another. The second tool was mean. This shows the average of variables taken into consideration. For example, here the mean of age is taken to see the average age of participants taking part in this research. Another tool is a standard deviation to analyze the deviance from the central mean position. This show how much data is scattered. The range is used to find the interval in which these values lie. In addition, the frequency is determined to analyze the occurrence of male and female participants, which shows that there were 75% females and 25% males in a sample of this research. The confidence score is determined by using a two-tailed test. The correlation was measured by using two tails because there was no direction about the relation of these variables.
What are the limitations of this study?
Limitations of a study suggest boundaries in which the study takes place. There are certain things that cannot be covered within the scope of a particular study. Such as, in above-mentioned study, the sample was taken from only two health area services. Therefore, it is not possible to generalize this result in all service areas of health care. The generalization can only be done to the areas that have same scope and nature.
Another limitation is that the sampling technique used in this study is convenience sampling. This may have an effect on the results of the study. The sample that was taken according to the convenience of the researcher may not possess the same level of confidence in decision-making or same critical thinking ability as the overall population. Therefore, the sample should be of diverse traits so that it can clearly represent the population.
List down 3 (three) clinical implications of this study
Clinical implications are the areas where these healthcare practices are helpful. These implications will show how much the true purpose of this study is served. Here are the three implications that can be implemented in practice.
- The negative relation between confidence in decision-making and critical thinking ability shows that health care units should not rely on the confidence level of their health care staff. However rational thinking should be used while decision making so that no adverse outcomes would follow.
- Some courses should be offered in health care units for professional development of workers. This will raise awareness in the nursing culture. Having more qualified and professional people working in healthcare industry would contribute to development.
The questioning attitude should be promoted so that the decision-making will focus on delivering better care to the patient. This is for the ultimate safety of patients because they will be treated once the treatment is confirmed after cross-checking every detail.