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Health Care, Medical

Trichomoniasis Disease

Trichomoniasis “trich” is a transmittable disease that is caused by a bug known as Trichomonas vaginalis. When infected, both men and women, 70% of them never show the symptoms. When the signs are recognizable, they typically start 5 to 28 days later after the disclosure. Trichomoniasis is one of the STI (sexually transmitted infection) and is transmittable through anal, oral, or even vaginal sex. Also, it can be transmitted through touch. Most often, the infected persons can spread Trichomoniasis even when the symptoms are not recognizable. However, Trichomoniasis increases the chance risk of getting infected with HIV/AIDS. Also, during the pregnancy, it can cause complications (Parenthood).

Symptoms

Most often, Trichomoniasis does not develop symptoms, although when the penis is infected, the infection most likely causes symptoms. However, at some time, Trichomoniasis causes symptoms to any gender. Buy is more likely to affect vaginitis. Therefore the vaginitis symptoms caused by Trichomoniasis include Blood on the vaginal discharge, distress in both genders when urinating or performing sexual intercourse, frothy, yellow, grey, and green and bad smelling virginal discharge, swelling around the genitals, irritation and itching around and in the vagina. Another symptom related to Trichomoniasis includes burning and pain when one is peeing, irritation and itching inside the penis, discharge from the urethra, and the urge to feel to pee a lot. Adnominal pain may also occur (Centers). These symptoms are open between 5 to 28 days.

Furthermore, Trichomoniasis can be barely noticeable or even irritating and really painful. It is very usual for the symptoms of shifts as they come and go. However, does not mean that when the infection goes away when the sign goes off.

Diagnosis

Apparently, three essential methods are used to test Trichomoniasis. The first one is referred to as microscopy. It is a common procedure that requires virginal, endocervical, or even penile swab samples for inspection under the microscope. The presence of single or various trichomonads includes the affirmative outcome. This method is known to be cheap, although it has a low sensitivity of about 60-70%, most often due to the inadequate tester resulting in wrong negatives.

The second method includes culture, which has its historical aspect of being the excellent standard for infectious disease diagnosis. The Trichomonas vaginal culture is used to carry out tests that are relatively cheap, although the sensitivity is generally somehow low for about 70-89%.

The third diagnosing procedure involves the NAATs (nucleic acid implication test), which is a bit sensitive. Using these types of tests is relatively costly compared to culture and microscopy, and they are more sensitive to about 80-90%.

Prevention

The use of condoms, i.e., in both male and female condoms, helps in the prevention and the spread of Trichomoniasis even though no in-depth studies have gone this far to focus on the prevention of Trichomoniasis infections. The Trichomoniasis infections via water don’t support the transmission of Trichomonas vaginalis as it dies when exposed to water after a duration of 45-60 minutes, thermal water after a span of 30 minutes to 3 hours, and when in urine that is diluted after a span of 5-6 hours.

Today, there isn’t any routine that is standard on screening requirements in America’s population who receive STIs or planning testing. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) recommends that Trichomoniasis testing is done on females experiencing female discharge and may be considered for females at greater infection risk or even the HIV-positive serostatus. Various strategies have been established to help improve the follow-up of the STI testing, which includes text and email messaging as reminders for appointments.

Screening

The evidence gathered from a randomized and controlled trial in screening pregnant ladies who do show the symptoms of the infection with Trichomoniasis and the treatment of the women who tested positive for the infections have not indicated risk reduction on preterm birth. Hence, further studies are recommended to verify the results and determine the best screening procedure. In America, pregnant women without the infection signs are only proposed to those with HIV as the Trichomoniasis infection is related to the transmission of HIV risk to the fetus.

Treatment

The treatment for both categories, i.e., pregnant and non-pregnant women, is obviously with Metronidazole done by mouth (” Womenshealth.Gov”). However, caution should always be used during pregnancy, mostly during the first trimester. Ideally, the sex partners without the symptoms are supposed to be treated. Generally, about 95-97 of the cases of trigomoniasis infection are solved after a single metronidazole dose. The research indicates that 4-5% of the cases related to Trichomoniasis are found to be resistant to metronidazole, which might result in ro some sequence cases. Hence, without the Trichomoniasis treatment, Trichomoniasis may persist for some months up to years for women, and it is thought to succeed without men’s treatment. However, the women who tested HIV positive are in a better position for care rates if the treatment is done for seven days instead of one dose. The topical treatment is, however, less active rather than the oral antibiotics due to the genitourinary and skene gland structure, which acts as a reservoir (Smith et al.,.1650-1650).

Complication

Trichomoniasis encourages the risks of transmission and infection of HIV.

Trichomoniasis might make a woman give birth to an immature or low-weight baby.

Trichomoniasis encourages the spread of prostatitis and asymptomatic urethritis.

Work Cited

Centers, CDC. “STD Facts – Trichomoniasis”. Cdc.Gov, 2018, https://www.cdc.gov/STD/Trichomonas/STDFact-Trichomoniasis.htm#symptoms. Accessed 7 Mar 2018.

Parenthood, parent. “What Are The Symptoms & Signs Of Trichomoniasis?”. Plannedparenthood.Org, 2018, https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/stds-hiv-safer-sex/trichomoniasis/what-are-symptoms-trichomoniasis. Accessed 7 Mar 2018.

Smith, Lisa V., Frank Sorvillo, and Tony Kuo. “Implications of Trichomonas vaginalis nucleic acid amplification testing on medical training and practice.” Journal of Clinical Microbiology 51.5 (2013): 1650-1650.

” Womenshealth.Gov”. Womenshealth.Gov, 2018, https://www.womenshealth.gov/a-z-topics/trichomoniasis. Accessed 7 Mar 2018.

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